June 28, 2013
As Norton-Taylor and Hopkins explain: “There areNSA liaison ocers assigned to GCHQ in Cheltenham,and GHQC ocers at the NSA’s headquarters in FortMeade, Maryland.” They note that the “RAF base”known as Menwith Hill, in North Yorkshire, is theNSA’s largest listening post outside the U.S., consistingo a satellite station or monitoring oreign militarytrac, but also plugged into Britain’s telecommunica-tions network.They cite a 1994 GCHQ sta manual which dis-cussed the importance o GCHQ’s contribution to thealliance with its partners, and stated: “This may entailon occasion the applying o UK resources to the meet-ing o US requirements.” This, o course, has beengoing on or a long time: Norton-Taylor and Hopkinsrecall that in the late 1960s, GCHQ had cooperated inthe illegal eavedropping on U.S. civil rights and anti-war activists. “With the help o a US-unded GCHQlistening station at Bude on North Cornwall, the twoagencies did each other’s dirty work, getting aroundtheir domestic laws by spying on each other’s citizens.”Always ritualistically denied, this U.S.-British ar-rangement, using each other to spy on their own citi-zens, has been going on or decades.
reported someo the ways this worked, in an April 2000 report on the“Echelon” controversy.
One loophole, described by
author James Bamord and others, worksas ollows:The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act(FISA), passed in 1978, speaks o “acquisition,”which is undened in the statute. To ll this gap,the NSA has dened it as “interception by theNational Security Agency through electronicmeans o a communication.” Thus, inormationacquired by Britain’s GCHQ, or one o the otherUKUSA parties, and then passed to U.S. agen-cies, is
covered under the act.We also noted that a U.S. Justice Department reportin 1976 had reported that “CGHQ-acquired” data wasgiven to the NSA or use in its MINARET program o U.S. domestic surveillance; this was then passed on toother U.S. agencies such as the FBI.Norton-Taylor and Hopkins give another exampleo GCHQ cooperating with the NSA in a 2002-03 BushAdministration-Tony Blair “dirty tricks” campaign o
2. Patrick Radden Keee,
Chatter:Dispatches rom the Secret World o Global Eavesdropping
Creative Commons/Tom Blackwell
Menwith Hill, in North Yorkshire, the NSA’s largest listening post outside the U.S., consists o a satellite station or monitoring oreign military trafc, and is plugged into Britain’s telecommunications network.