For the purpose of this paper, the term“ship” is used to denote a vehicle employed to transport goods and personsfrom one point to another over water.Ship propulsion normally occurs withthehelpofapropeller,whichisthetermmostwidelyusedinEnglish,although the word “screw” is sometimesseen, inter alia in combinationssuchasa“twinscrew”propulsionplant. Today, the primary source of propellerpoweristhedieselengine,andthepowerrequirementandrateofrevolutionverymuch depend on the ship’s hull formand the propeller design. Therefore, inorder to arrive at a solution that is asoptimal as possible, some generalknowledge is essential as to the principal ship and diesel engine parametersthat influence the propulsion system. This paper will, in particular, attempt toexplain some of the most elementaryterms used regarding ship types,ship’s dimensions and hull forms andclarify some of the parameters pertaining to hull resistance, propeller conditions and the diesel engine’s loaddiagram.On the other hand, it is considered beyond the scope of this publication togive an explanation of how propulsioncalculations as such are carried out, asthe calculation procedure is extremelycomplex. The reader is referred to thespecialised literature on this subject, forexample as stated in “References”.
Scope of this Paper
Thispaperisdividedintothreechapterswhich,inprinciple,maybeconsideredasthreeseparatepapersbutwhichalso,withadvantage,maybereadincloseconnectiontoeachother.Therefore,someimportantinformationmentionedinonechaptermaywellappearinanotherchapter,too.Chapter 1, describes the most elementary terms used to define ship sizesand hull forms such as, for example,the ship’s displacement, deadweight,design draught, length between perpendiculars, block coefficient, etc.Other ship terms described include theeffective towing resistance, consistingof frictional, residual and air resistance,and the influence of these resistancesin service.Chapter 2, deals with ship propulsionand the flow conditions around the propeller(s). In this connection, the wakefraction coefficient and thrust deduction coefficient, etc. are mentioned. The total power needed for the propelleris found based on the above effective towing resistance and variouspropeller and hull dependent efficiencies which are also described. A summary of the propulsion theory is shownin Fig. 6. The operating conditions of a propelleraccording to the propeller law valid forapropellerwithfixedpitcharedescribedforfreesailingincalmweather,andfollowed up by the relative heavy/lightrunning conditions which apply whentheshipissailingandsubjecttodifferenttypes of extra resistance, like fouling,heavy sea against, etc.Chapter 3, elucidates the importanceof choosing the correct specified MCRandoptimisingpointofthemainengine,and thereby the engine’s load diagraminconsiderationtothepropeller’sdesignpoint.Theconstructionoftherelevantload diagram lines is described in detailby means of several examples. Fig. 24shows, for a ship with fixed pitch propeller, by means of a load diagram, theimportant influence of different types of ship resistance on the engine’s continuous service rating.3
Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion