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Nishi Yasutomo - Interpretation of TEN SUCHNESS and Its Transition

Nishi Yasutomo - Interpretation of TEN SUCHNESS and Its Transition

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Interpretation
of
"Ten Suchness" and its Transition
NISHI
Y
asutomo
Introduction
The
Lotus Siitra,
one
of
the early Mahayana Sfitras, came
to
existencearound 150 A.D., and it is still one
of
the Buddhist Siitras that
is
expresslypopular in the world today.
It
has been said that there were six classical Chinese translations of the
Lotus Siitra.
These six are:
Zheng-fahua-jing
([lE~$*-£~)
in ten volumeswith twenty-seven chapters (translated by
Dharmarak~a
in 286 A.D.);
LotusSiitra, Miaofa-lianhua-jing
CW~Y~~-*-£~)
,
in seven volumes with twentyseven chapters (translated by Kumarajiva in 406 A.D.);
Tianpin-miaofalianhua-jing
(
W
dEt
~y
~
~
$
~~
~)
in seven volumes with twenty-sevenchapters (translated by Jfianagupta and Paramartha in
601
A.D.);
Satanfentuoli-jing
CWWitt7t~~!flj*-£~);
Fahua-sanmei-jing
cw~•
fPK*-£~);
and
Sanche-youyin-huozhai-jing
(W=$~511<~*-£~).
However, out of these six,three translations; the
Satan-fentuoli-jing,
the
Fahua-sanmei-jing,
and the
Sanche-youyin-huozhai-jing
are presently missing and cannot be acquired.Since the original text of the existing three classical Chinesetranslations
of
the
Lotus Siitra
is unknown, researches concerning the originaltext
of
the
Lotus Siitra
has extensively been performed."Ten Suchness" is a passage from the Kumarajiva's translation ofSkillful Means (chapter two)
of
the
Lotus Siitra, Miaofa-lianhua-jing
W~Yr!~
$
*-£
~
) .
It
is
said as the simple expression of the 'true entity
of
allphenomena(zhufa-shixiang;
mf
~ ~
:.f§
) ,
and this
is
one
of
the methodsrepresenting the teaching
of
the
Lotus Siitra.
Due
to
the above reason, the TenSuchness
is
also called
"Lue-fahua;
PI!~$"
or an abridgment of the
LotusSiitra.
Factors
of
the Ten Suchness are 'form (xiang;
If§)',
'nature (xing;
1
11:.)',
'embodiment (ti;
f;$)',
'potency (li;
1J)',
'function (zuo;
f'F)',
'primary cause
-567-
 
(yin;
129)',
'secondary cause (yuan;
~)',
'effect (guo;
*)',
'recompense (bao;
m)'
and 'complete fundamental whole (benmo-jiujing-deng;
**~~~)'.
The factor 'complete fundamental whole' means the other nine factors ('form'to 'recompense') are consistently equal. Therefore, the Ten Suchness indicatesthat all
of
these ten factors are the truth and equal in any aspect.Previous studies have clarified the Ten Suchness in comparison withthe Sanskrit version
of
Suchness (hereafter Suchness in the
Saddhanna
pw:u)arfka).
Examples
of
such studies are; 'Dubious Nature
of
Ten SuchnessText'
1,
'Interpretation
of
Ten Nyoze'
2,
'The Ten Suchness'
3,
and 'TheMeaning
of
shi ru shi
-t~tz[J~'
4
.
None
of
these papers, however, refers to howthe Ten Suchness has developed.In this paper, based on previous studies
of
the Sanskrit interpretation ofthe Suchness, and at the same time, by comparing the
Saddharmapu'!qlarfka
with classical Chinese, Tibetan, French, and English translation of the
LotusSutra,
I will discuss the establishment
of
the Ten Suchness.
1. The Ten Suchness in Sanskrit and Classical Chinese
Corresponding passages
of
what is said to be the Ten Suchness in the
Saddharmapu7!qlarfka
and the classical Chinese translation are indicatedbelow:
1
Giei Honda: 'Dubious Nature
of
Ten Suchness Text (Junyo honbun
ni
taisuru gigi)',
Inner and Outer
of
Buddhist Sutra, (Butten no naisou to gaisou),
Kobund6-syob6,1934, pp.359-386.
2
Yukio Sakamoto: 'Interpretation
of
Ten Nyoze', edited by Yensho Kanakura,
D.
Litt.:
The Lotus Sutra and The Development
of
Buddhist Thought,
Heirakuji Shoten Kyoto,1970, pp.27 5-316.
3
Kazuyoshi Kino: 'Concerning the Ten Suchness (JUnyoze
ni
tsuite
)',
Search
for
LotusSutra (Hokekyo no Tankyu), The Lotus Sutra chapter Two
-Existence
of
Real Facts(The true entity
of
all phenomena),
Heirakuji Shoten, 1962, pp.l 00-112.
4
Eikan Taki: 'The Meaning
of
shi ru shi
+flO~',
Journal
of
Indian and BuddhistStudies (lndo-gaku Bukkyo-gaku Kenkyu)
Vol. L Number
2,
2002, pp.916-919.
-568-
 
Interpretation
of
"Ten Suchness" and its Transition
( 1)
Saddharmapu~J-9-arfka
5
mahascaryadbhuta-praptal). sariputra tathagata arhantah samyaksmpbuddhal).
I
alam sariputra etavad eva bhasitum bhavatuparamascarya-praptal). sariputra tathagata arhantal). samyak-sambuddhal).
1
tathagata eva sariputra tathagatasya dharmarp desayed yan dharmarpstathagato janati
I
sarva-dharman api sariputra tathagata eva desayati
I
sarva-dharman api tathagata eva janati
I
ye ca te dharma yatha ca tedharma yadrsas ca te dharma
yallak~aJ}as
ca te dharma yatsvabhavas cate dharma!).) ye ca yatha ca yadrsas ca
yallak~aJ}as
ca yatsvabhavas ca tedharma iti
I
e~u
dharme~u
tathagata eva
ratyak~o
'parok~al).ll
(translation)
Sariputra, tathagatas, those who are worth revering and have truly awaken to thetruth, have obtained things to be great, wonderful and marvelous.Sariputra, do not preach only in this manner, Sariputra, tathagatas, those whoare worth revering
and
have truly awaken to the truth, have obtained things tobe supreme and wonderful.Sariputra, only tathagata can preach the teaching
of
tathagata which tathagataknows.Moreover, Sariputra, all the teachings are preached only by tathagata.Furthermore, only tathagata knows all the teachings.And
(1)
what
(ye_}
these teachings are.
And
(2)
in
which_manner/w11)'_ (yglthhlthese various teachings are.
And
(3) like whaJJyiidrsas) these teachings are.
And
(4)
of
what_!ljiturL()r£tl-lill5sana~
these teachings are.
And
(5)
of
whatc.;haracteristics__(yat-svabhavas) these teaching are.Namely, what
(y_~l,
in
which m_ctnner/way
(y~Jh~},
like__lY_l}_a_t
_
y~drsa_s),
of
whatnature
__{yill-:lill<c§alllij),
and
o:L_}Yh_at
chan~.c.:l~rj~ti<::~
(yat-svabhavasl theseteachings are.Only tathagata, concerning these teachings, can grasp and recognize.
5
H.Kern, B. Nanjio:
Saddharmapw:u)arfka,
(Bibliotheca Buddhica No.lO) St.Petersbourg, 1908-12, pp.29-30.
-569-

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