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Mega Cities and Climate Change (LEAD)

Mega Cities and Climate Change (LEAD)

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Published by: Daisy on May 25, 2009
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LEAD International 2008
   M   e   g   a   c   i   t   i   e   s
    a   n   d   C   l   i   m   a   t   e   C   h   a   n   g   e
   S   u   s   t   a   i   n   a   b   l   e   u   r   b   a   n   l   i   v   i   n   g   i   n   a   c   h   a   n   g   i   n   g   w   o   r   l   d
 
   1 
Preface
2
Foreword
3
Introduction
5
Chapter 1
Energy8
Chapter 2
TransportandUrbanMobility20
Chapter 3
WaterandSanitation30
Chapter 4
LanduseandUrbanPlanning38
Key Messages
49
Useful Links
50
Authors
53
About LEAD
55
All rights reserved to LEAD InternationalNothing from this publication may be reproduced, storedin a computerised system or published in any form or inany manner, including electronic, mechanical,reprographic or photographic, without prior writtenpermission fromthe publisher;
LEAD International
Sundial House114 Kensington High StreetLondon W8 4NPUKThe individual contributions in this publicationand any liabilities arising from them remainthe responsibility of the authors.The publisher is not responsible for possible damages,which could be a result of content derived from thispublication.This publication was prepared for LEAD withcontributions from the following LEAD Fellows
Patricia Avila
 
LEAD Mexico
Bharati Chaturvedi
 
LEAD India
Nick Harrison
 
LEAD Europe
Tiyok Prasetyoadi
LEAD Indonesia
Melita Rogelj
LEAD Europe
Theresa Subban
LEAD South Eastern Africa
Erin Silsbe
LEAD CanadaEdited by
Fernando Monteiro, Boris Graizbord,Manuela Bucciarelli
and
Nick Harrison
   C   o   n   t   e   n   t   s
Megacities and Climate Change
Sustainableurbanlivinginachangingworld
 
   2   M   e   g   a   c   i   t   i   e   s   a   n   d   C   l   i   m   a   t   e   C   h   a   n   g   e   3 
thedevelopedanddevelopingworldposedifficultquestionsabouthowtomanageurbangrowthinthe21stcentury.AvoidingthemistakesmadeinNorthAmericancities,whereurbanisationcoincidedwithaloveaffairwiththecarisprovingtobeoneofthemostcomplexchallenges.Foodshortages,naturaldisastersandwidespreadinequalityposeevengreaterthreatstothe40percentoftheworld’spopulationlivingonlessthanUS$2aday.Themostvulnerableliveinthedevelopingworld,wherethoseleastabletoprotectthemselvescontributetheleasttotheworldwidetotalemissionsofgreenhousegases.TheUN’sHumanDevelopmentReportcitesthatonanaverageannualbasis,onein19peoplelivinginthedevelopingworldwasaffectedbyaclimatedisasterinthefirstyearsofthe21stcentury.Temperatureincreasesanddepletionoftheearth’snaturalcapitalwillonlyexacerbatetheintensityandfrequencyofclimatedisasters.Thatbetterlivingconditionscanbeamelioratedbyadvancesinsustainableurbandevelopmentispoorlyunderstood.Toooftenpolicymakers,practitionersandcommunityactivistslacktheknowledgeandskill-settocreatemoresociallyandeconomicallycohesivecommunities.Thisisbecauseofthedeepfragmentationthatexistswithintheprofessionsandbetweenvariouslevelsofgovernment,butalsobecausetheplanningprocessanddevelopmentpoliciestypicallydonotadequatelyintegrateenvironmentalconsiderationsorprioritisesocialinfrastructureearlyenough.Ittakesamulti-sectorapproach,onesynthesisingfinancialandsocialimperativesaswellastheenvironmentandphysicalform,torespondtotheunpredictablechallengescausedbyclimatechange.Thebirthofthe21stcenturyinauguratedthefirstageofcities,theUrbanAge.Withoverhalftheworld’spopulationnowlivinginanurbancentre,questionsabouthowwelive,work,andmoveareincreasinglyfocusedonthephysicalformofcitiesandtheirgreatermetropolitanregions.Ascentresforknowledge,citiesareincubatorsforchange.Theyarealsothetestinggroundforculturalregenerationandsocialintegration,providingjobs,accesstoeducationandhealthcareforalargepercentageofthepoorandtheemergingmiddleclass.Asthelargestemitterofcarbonemissions,citiesexertanenormousinfluenceonenvironmentalpressuresresultingfromclimatechange.Andwiththeintuitiverural-urbanmigrationcontinuingunabated,citiesarethebattlefieldonwhichthefutureofhumanitywillbefought.Whichurbanformsbestaccommodatetheincreasinglydiverseconstituencieslivingincitiestoday?Andhowcantheruleoflawreconcilethetensionsbetweenspatialandsocialdisorder?UrbanAge,ajointinitiativeoftheLondonSchoolofEconomicsandPoliticalScienceandDeutscheBank’sAlfredHerrhausenSociety,isestablishinganewagendaforthefutureofcitiesinordertopromotethegrowthandsustainabledevelopmentofglobalcitiesinthedevelopedanddevelopingworld.Thisagendaisbeingcreatedinpartnershipwithgovernmentagencies,researchinstitutions,privatecorporationsandcivilsocietyorganisationsattheinternational,central,regional,stateandlocallevels.Byintegratingtransversalthemessuchashousing,migration,transportinfrastructure,inequalityandviolence,includingtheimpacttheseissueshaveonthecreationandmaintenanceofpublicspace,UrbanAgeischartingthefutureofcitiesandclimatechangeisattheforefrontofthisagenda.Urbangrowthpatternsandnetworksdefinetheglobalpoliticaleconomy.UnitedNationsprojectionsforaworldpopulationofninebillionby2050couldseeasmanyas75percentlivingincities.AfricaandAsiaarethemaindriversofthisincreaseasLatinAmerica,EuropeandNorthAmericahavebeenover75percenturbanisedsince2000.Evenso,bothsmallandlargecitiesacross
For the first time in human history, more people are living in urbanareas than rural ones. This unprecedented and ongoing transitioncoincides with alarming degradation of the natural environment.With so many cities already experiencing the early impacts ofclimate change there is an urgent need for action.As climate change becomes more apparent it will have massiveimplications for urban living across the world. Key urban serviceslike transport, water, energy and land use will all be adverselyaffected. But while “business as usual” points to a disastrous future,there are opportunities to be had from a different approach. Withthe right leadership, cities offer the potential to be critical leveragepoints for achieving a transition towards a more sustainable future.If we can work towards making cities respond to the comingchallenges in a radical and far sighted way, the implications forsustainability could be deep and profound.How can cities adapt to the coming changes? How can cities pointthe way to a different kind of low-carbon future? What lessonscan be learnt from experiences in the South and North? Whatkind of leadership is required to identify, promote and deliverthe required changes?Building on the diversity of experience, which is the trademarkof the global LEAD network, this publication brings together LEADFellows who are working in the front line of efforts to promotesustainability and urban living in very different contexts aroundthe world, to explore some of the challenges and potential solutionsto what needs to be done.Focussing on the importance of leadership, LEAD’s main aim is tocontribute to the debate by promoting an exchange of views aboutthe role leadership plays in addressing climate change in large citiesand urban areas. We hope we can inspire and inform stakeholders anddecision makers to rise to the leadership challenge and act to securea sustainable future for our cities and the people who live in them.
LEAD International
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