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8 Global Stratification

8 Global Stratification

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Published by Joseph Eulo
Principles of Sociology for SOC101
Principles of Sociology for SOC101

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Published by: Joseph Eulo on May 25, 2009
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02/16/2013

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Wealth and Poverty in GlobalPerspectiveProblems in Studying Global Inequality
 The "Three Worlds"Approach The Levels of Development Approach
Classification of Economies by Income
Low-Income EconomiesMiddle-Income EconomiesHigh-Income Economies
Measuring Global Wealth and Poverty
Absolute, Relative, and Subjective Poverty The Gini Coefficient and Global Quality-of-Life Issues
GlobalPoverty and Human DevelopmentIssues
Life ExpectancyHealthEducation and LiteracyPersistent Gaps in Human Development
 Theories of Global Inequality
Development and Modernization TheoryDependency TheoryWorld SystemsTheory  The NewInternational Divisionof Labor Theory
Global Inequality in the Future
 ThomsonNOW
 Thisiconsignals when ThomsonNOW has important resources available foryou to use inconjunctionwith the text.See the oldout attheront othistextfor infor- mation on howtoaccessThomsonNOW.
M
arathon running has taken mealongwayfrommyroots inthesmall townoBaringo inKenya'sRiftValley.I grewupknowingwhat itwasliketobepoor andhungry.Whenever I cometoLondonorother citiesinthedeveloped worldtocompete inmarathons,I enteradifferent universe where choice, opulence andopportunity characterize people's lives.Ithasbeen fascinating tofollowthedebate inBritain about school meals. Ihavelistened tothearguments about whether children should beallowedtoeat TurkeyTwizzlers, orbeefburgersandchips. Iwishitcouldbethesametheworldover.Whilenutrition isaserious matter for anychild, formeandmyclassmates [inKenya]itwasnever really acaseofwhat wemight choosetoeat,but rather whether wewouldeat atall.MostkidsinBaringohadtohelptheir familiesearn aliving.Educationwasoutofthequestion or,atbest, something onlyonechildinthefamilycouldpursue. Fortheluckyoneslikeme,whocouldgotoschool,thethree-mile trek eachmorning onanemptystomach madeitdifficult,andsometimesimpossible, toconcentrate onlessons.
 
such ashow classlocation may positively or negatively influence one'sidentityand everydaysocial inter- actions. Symbolic interactionists use termssuch as
socialcohesion
and
detrence
toexplain howclassbinds some individuals together while categoricallyseparat- ing out others.
K ey Terms
absolutepoverty216 alienation 199capitalistclass(boutgeoisie) 199 caste system 198 classconflict 199 classsystem 198 Davis-Moorethesis 220 feminization of poverty218 income 208intergenerationalmobility 194 intragenerationalmobility 194  job deskilling 219 lifechances 194meritocracy220 official povertyline 216 pink-collar occupations 204 power 201prestige201 relativepoverty216 slavery195 social mobility194 socialstratification194 socioeconomic status (SES)201 underclass205 wealth201workingclass (proletariat)199
Questions for Critical Thinking
1.Based on the Weberianand Marxian modelso classstructure, what istheclasslocation of eacho your tenclosest friends or acquaintances? What is theirlocation in relationship toyours?To one an- other's?What doestheir location tellyou about friendshipand socialclass? 2. Should employment be basedon meritocracy, need,or affirmative action policies? 3. What might happen in theUnited States if the gap between richand poor continuesto widen?
 The K endall Companion Website
Supplementyour review of this chapter bygoing to the companionwebsiteto take one of the tutorial quizzes,usethe flash cards to master keyterms,and check out themanyotherstudyaids you'll find there. You'llalsoindspecial eatures suchasGSS Data and Census2000 information that will put data and resources atyour fingertips tohelpyouwith that special pro ject or helpyou do someresearch on your own.
 
WhenIwas eight, that changed. TheUnitedNations began distributing foodattheschoolsinthearea and aheavy burden wasliftedfromourshoulders.Myfriends andInolonger worriedabout beinghungryinclass. Weateasimplemealeach dayandcouldstayfocused duringlessons.... I oftenaskmyself:withoutthebenefit ofschool meals, wouldIhavebecome aliterate,healthy,successful long-distance runner?
-PaulTergat(2005),a marathonworld record holder andwinner of two silverOlympicmedals, describing his early childhood, marked bypovertyand hunger in Kenya
M
arathoner PauL Tergat speaks for miL-Lions of peopLe around the worLd who
have
experienced poverty and hunger.In his roLe as Ambassador Against Hunger for theWorLdFood Program, Tergat encourages others toget
invoLved
in campaigns against hunger, illiter-acy,'poLLution, homeLessness, and other probLemsthat Limit peopLe's Lifechances and opportunities.He aLso highLights the fact that aLthough studentsin high-income nations
have
many food choices,some of which may be bad for them, students inLow-income nations
have
very LittLefood and ex-tremeLy Limited choices in Life without interven-tion from the outside (Hattori,2006). RegardLess of where peopLe Live in the worLd,sociaL and economic inequaLities are pressingdaily concerns. Poverty and inequaLity know nopoLiticaL boundaries or nationaL borders. In thischapter, we examine gLobaL stratification and in-equaLity, and discuss perspectives that
have
beendeveLoped to expLain the nature and extent of thisprobLem. Before reading on, test your knowLedgeof gLobaL weaLth and poverty (see Box 8.1).
 The success story of marathon world-record-holder Paul Tergat, who grew up poor and hungry, calls our attention toissues of globalstratification and inequality.

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