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Cellular Pathway Notes

Cellular Pathway Notes

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Published by: FVCproductions on Aug 03, 2013
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Cellular Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy : Interactive SummariesEnergy & Electrons from Glucose
Metabolic pathways occur in small steps, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Theyare often compartmentalized.When glucose burns, energy is released as heat & light. . same equation applies to .metabolism of glucose by cells, but . reaction is accomplished in many separatesteps so that . energy can be captured in ATP.Oxidation is . loss of electrons; reduction is . gain of electrons. As a material isoxidized, . electrons it loses are transferred to another material, which is therebyreduced. Such redox reactions transfer large amounts of energy.. coenzyme NAD is a key electron carrier in biological redox reactions. It exists intwo forms, one oxidized (NAD
+
) & . other reduced (NADH + H
+
).Glycolysis operates in . presence or absence of O
2
. Under aerobic conditions,cellular respiration continues . process of breaking down glucose. Under anaerobicconditions, fermentation occurs.Cellular respiration consists of three pathways: pyruvate oxidation, . citric acidcycle, & . respiratory chain.Pyruvate oxidation & . citric acid cycle produce CO
2
& hydrogen atoms carried byNADH & FADH
2
. . respiratory chain combines these hydrogens with O
2
, releasingenough energy for . synthesis of ATP
.
In eukaryotes, glycolysis & fermentation take place in . cytoplasm outside of .mitochondria; pyruvate oxidation, . citric acid cycle, & . respiratory chain operate inassociation with mitochondria. In prokaryotes, glycolysis, fermentation, & . citricacid cycle take place in . cytoplasm, & pyruvate oxidation & . respiratory chainoperate in association with . plasma membrane.
Glycolysis: From Glucose to Pyruvate
Glycolysis is a pathway of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions located in . cytoplasm.Glycolysis provides starting materials for both cellular respiration & fermentation.. energy-investing reactions of glycolysis use two ATPs per glucose molecule &eventually yield two G3P molecules. In . energy-harvesting reactions, two NADHmolecules are produced, & four ATP molecules are generated by substrate-levelphosphorylation. Two pyruvate molecules are produced for each glucose molecule.
Pyruvate Oxidation
. pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes three reactions: (1) Pyruvate isoxidized to an acetyl group, releasing one CO
2
molecule & considerable energy. (2)Some of this energy is captured when NAD
+
is reduced to NADH + H
+
. (3) .remaining energy is captured when . acetyl group is combined with coenzyme A, yielding acetyl CoA.
. Citric Acid Cycle
. energy in acetyl CoA drives . reaction of acetate with oxaloacetate to producecitrate. . citric acid cycle is a series of reactions in which citrate is oxidized &

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