Cellular Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy : Interactive SummariesEnergy & Electrons from Glucose
•Metabolic pathways occur in small steps, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Theyare often compartmentalized.•When glucose burns, energy is released as heat & light. . same equation applies to .metabolism of glucose by cells, but . reaction is accomplished in many separatesteps so that . energy can be captured in ATP.•Oxidation is . loss of electrons; reduction is . gain of electrons. As a material isoxidized, . electrons it loses are transferred to another material, which is therebyreduced. Such redox reactions transfer large amounts of energy.•. coenzyme NAD is a key electron carrier in biological redox reactions. It exists intwo forms, one oxidized (NAD
) & . other reduced (NADH + H
).•Glycolysis operates in . presence or absence of O
. Under aerobic conditions,cellular respiration continues . process of breaking down glucose. Under anaerobicconditions, fermentation occurs.•Cellular respiration consists of three pathways: pyruvate oxidation, . citric acidcycle, & . respiratory chain.•Pyruvate oxidation & . citric acid cycle produce CO
& hydrogen atoms carried byNADH & FADH
. . respiratory chain combines these hydrogens with O
, releasingenough energy for . synthesis of ATP
•In eukaryotes, glycolysis & fermentation take place in . cytoplasm outside of .mitochondria; pyruvate oxidation, . citric acid cycle, & . respiratory chain operate inassociation with mitochondria. In prokaryotes, glycolysis, fermentation, & . citricacid cycle take place in . cytoplasm, & pyruvate oxidation & . respiratory chainoperate in association with . plasma membrane.
Glycolysis: From Glucose to Pyruvate
•Glycolysis is a pathway of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions located in . cytoplasm.Glycolysis provides starting materials for both cellular respiration & fermentation.•. energy-investing reactions of glycolysis use two ATPs per glucose molecule &eventually yield two G3P molecules. In . energy-harvesting reactions, two NADHmolecules are produced, & four ATP molecules are generated by substrate-levelphosphorylation. Two pyruvate molecules are produced for each glucose molecule.
•. pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes three reactions: (1) Pyruvate isoxidized to an acetyl group, releasing one CO
molecule & considerable energy. (2)Some of this energy is captured when NAD
is reduced to NADH + H
. (3) .remaining energy is captured when . acetyl group is combined with coenzyme A, yielding acetyl CoA.
. Citric Acid Cycle
•. energy in acetyl CoA drives . reaction of acetate with oxaloacetate to producecitrate. . citric acid cycle is a series of reactions in which citrate is oxidized &