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Nota Padat Fizik F4 Heat Notes

# Nota Padat Fizik F4 Heat Notes

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09/28/2010

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HEAT4.1 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM1. Define:(a) Temperature
The measure of the degree of hotness of an object.
Measured in SI unit Kelvin, KA hot object is at a higher temperature than a coldobject.
Form of energy, measured in Joules, J
Heat is transferred from hotter object (higher temperature) to colder object (lower temperature)(b) HeatWhen an object is heated, it will absorb heat energy andthe temperature will increase.When an object is cooled, it will release heat energy andthe temperature will decrease.(c) ThermalcontactTwo objects are in thermal contact when heat energycan be transferred between them.(d) Heat transfer When two objects with different degrees of hotnesscome into thermal contact, heat energy is transferredbetween the two objects.(e) Mechanism of Thermal EquilibriumEnergy is transferred at a faster ratefrom the hotter object to the colder object. Energy is also transferredfrom the colder object to the hotter one, but at a slower rate.There is a net flow of energy from thehotter object to the colder object.The hotter object cools down whilethe colder object warms up .After some time, energy istransferred at the same rate betweenthe two objects. There is no net heattransfer between the objects.The two objects are said to be inthermal equilibrium.(f) ThermalEquilibriumWhen two objects are in thermal equilibrium, there isno net flow of heat between them.Two objects in thermal equilibrium have the sametemperature
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Example of thermal equilibriumA wet towel is placed on the forehead of a person who has high fever.Initially the temperature of the cloth is lower than the body temperatureof the person. Heat energy is transferred from the forehead to thetowel until thermal equilibrium is reached. The towel is rinsed in tapwater and the procedure is repeated. In this way heat energy isremoved from the person.Cooling drinksA hot drink can be cooled by adding a few ice cubes to the drink. Heatfrom the hot drink is transferred to the colder ice until thermalequilibrium between the ice and water is reached. The finaltemperature of the drink equal the final temperature of ices.Liquid-in-glass Thermometer The characteristic of the liquid used inliquid-in-glassthermometer 1. be easily seen2. expand and contract rapidly over a wide rangeof temperature/ expand uniformly when heated3. not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube.How a liquid-in-glass thermometer works?1. The bulb of the thermometer contains a fixedmass of mercury. The volume of the mercuryincreases when it absorbs heat.2. The mercury expands and rises in the capillarytube. The length of the mercury column in thecapillary tube indicates the magnitude of thetemperature.How can athermometer becalibrated?1. A temperature scale is obtained by choosingtwo temperatures, called the fixed point.2. Definition of ice point and steam pointFixed point Definition ValueLower point: IcePointThe temperature of pure melting ice0°CUpper point:steam pointThe temperature of steam from water thatis boiling under standard atmosphericpressure.100°C
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When the two fixed points have been marked onthe stem of the thermometer, the range betweenthem is divided equally into 100 divisions or degrees. The thermometer now has a scale.Explain the workingprinciple of athermometer When the thermometer is placed in contact withhot water, heat is transferred from hot water to thethermometer.Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer andhot water is reached when the net rate of heattransfer is zero.The thermometer and the water are at the sametemperature. At this point, the thermometer reading shows the temperature of the water.What arecharacteristics of mercury that makesit suitable as aliquid-in-glassthermometer?1. It is a good conductor of heat2. it has a high boiling point, 357°C3. it expands uniformly when heated4. it is opaque (does not allow light to passthrough) and it can be seen easily.Mercury freezes at a temperature of - 39°C and it istherefore not suitable for measuring temperaturesbelow this temperature, such at the north pole.How to increase thesensitivity of amercurythermometer?1. Thin capillary tube2. A glass bulb with thinner wall3. Large bulb
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