The Reading Apprenticeship Framework
meaning and monitor their understanding, paying attention to inconsistenciesthat arise as they interact with the text. I they notice that they are losing themeaning as they read, they draw on a variety o strategies to readjust theirunderstandings. They come to texts with purposes that guide their reading,taking a stance toward the text and responding to the ideas that take shape inthe conversation between the text and the sel.
While reading a newspaper analysis o global hostilities, or example, youmay silently argue with its presentation o “acts,” question the assertions o thewriter, and fnd yoursel revisiting heated debates with riends over U.S. or-eign policy. You may picture events televised during earlier wars. Lost in yourrecollections, you may fnd that even though your eyes have scanned severalparagraphs, you have taken nothing in, so you reread these passages, this timeocusing on analysis.
Reading Is Problem Solving
Reading is not a straightorward process o liting the words o the page. Itis a complex process o problem solving in which the reader works to makesense o a text not just rom the words and sentences on the page but also romthe ideas, memories, and knowledge evoked by those words and sentences.Although at frst glance reading may seem to be passive, solitary, and simple,it is in truth active, populated by a rich mix o voices and views—those o theauthor, o the reader, and o others the reader has heard, read about, and oth-erwise encountered throughout lie.
Fluent Reading Is Not the Same as Decoding
Skillul reading does require readers to carry out certain tasks in a airly auto-matic manner. Decoding skills—quick word recognition and ready knowledgeo relevant vocabulary, or example—are important to successul reading.However, they are by no means sufcient, especially when texts are complex orotherwise challenging.Yet many discussions about struggling readers conuse decoding with u-ency. Fluency derives rom the reader’s ability not just to decode or identiyindividual words but also to quickly process larger language units.
In ourinquiries into reading—our own and that o our students—we have seen thatuency, like other dimensions o reading, varies according to the text at hand.When readers are unamiliar with the particular language structures and ea-tures o a text, their language-processing ability breaks down. This means, orexample, that teachers cannot assume that students who uently read narra-tive or literary texts will be equally uent with inormational texts or primarysource documents.