Economic Engagement - Celik
1. Interpretation -
“Economic engagement” is limited to expanding
economic ties.Çelik 11
Arda Can Çelik, Master’s Degree in Politics and International Studies from Uppsala
University, Economic Sanctions and Engagement Policies, p. 11
Economic engagement policies are strategic integration behaviour which involves with thetarget state. Engagement policies differ from other tools in Economic Diplomacy. They target todeepen the economic relations to create economic intersection, interconnectness, and mutualdependence and finally seeks economic interdependence
. This interdependence serves the sender stale to change thepolitical behaviour of target stale. However they cannot be counted as carrots or inducement tools, they focus on long term strategic goals andthey are not restricted with short term policy changes.(Kahler&Kastner,2006) They can be unconditional and focus on creating greatereconomic benefits for both parties. Economic engagement targets to seek deeper economic linkages via promoting institutionalized mutualtrade thus mentioned interdependence creates two major concepts. Firstly it builds strong trade partnership to avoid possible militarized andnon militarized conflicts. Secondly it gives a leeway lo perceive the international political atmosphere from the same and harmonizedperspective.
Kahler and Kastner define the engagement policies as follows "
It is a policy of
deliberateexpanding economic ties
with and adversary in order to change the behaviour of target state and improve bilateral relations
.(p523-abstact). It is an intentional economic strategy that expects bigger benefits such as long termeconomic gains and more importantly; political gains. The main idea behind the engagement motivation is stated by Rosecrance (1977) in a waythat "
the direct and positive linkage of interests of stales where a change in the position of one state affects the position of others in the samedirection
Economic and Commercial engagement are different
the plan iscommercial.Vickers 12
Dr. Brendan Vickers, Research Associate on Global Economy and Development at theInstitute for Global Dialogue, South African Foreign Policy Review, Volume 1, Ed. Landsberg and VanWyk, p. 112-113
Conceptually, it is
possible to distinguish between 'economic' and 'commercial' diplomacy or
, inanother sense,
the 'high' and 'low' politics of
international economic relations
. In this chapter,
economic diplomacy refers to the ways
the South African
government formally negotiates
place in the world economy at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Economicdiplomacy has clear political economy objectives such as increasing
relative power orinfluence
in international bargains:
improving the country's
(or an industry's)
relative to others;
and using political tools to achieve economic ends, and vice versa
. Economic diplomacy thus encapsulates globalpolicy-making processes, for example, in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UIMCTAD). the World Trade Organization(WTO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (W1PO); as well as regional economic policymaking In the African Union <AU), theSouthern African Development Community (SADC) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).aSouth Africa's economic diplomacy agenda comprises four core policy imperatives: to expand trade and Investment links in Africa and advanceregional integration in Southern and Eastern Africa: to consolidate links with traditional trade and investment partners in the North: to buildindustrial complementarities with the dynamic emerging economies of the South; and to rebalance global trade rules in favour of developingcountries through the VVTO's Doha Round negotiations/'
By contrast, commercial diplomacy entails a narrower set of activities that include export development and export promotion, facilitating inward and outward
foreign direct investment (
promoting technology sharing and cooperation, positioning
as apreferred tourism destination, and marketing
South Africa more widely abroad.
The objective of commercialdiplomacy is to support
to gain tangibly from the opportunities created by broader economic diplomacyprocesses.1