?resbyters ordained as successors to the 'postles! These successors ordained by the'postles were both representaties of the 'postles and teachers of 'postolic Doctrineto their Churches as well as representaties of their Churches to 'postolicCollege@Councils $'ct )=% for guidance and later to the 4cumenical $general@catholic%Councils $from GrkA
for inhabited world or GrkA
foruniersal% held to draw up creeds that sought to ensure doctrinal agreement with theharmonious teaching of the whole 2criptures! There were dierences of local, &ellenistor (ewish or miEed traditions as well as wider disciplinary and doctrinal ariations oreen controersies but all still remained within the same >urisdiction of Churchleadership locally and in same communion together as the united, holy, apostolicChurch which is both
NOT Greek Orthodox Church
NOT Roman Catholic Church
%! 3hile the Church was spreading underground during the 0++ years of 2tatepersecution, seeral diergent iews emerged due to lack of access to apostolicteachings or epistles and poor contact with each other! 8rom ;icaea in 0= 'D when2tate persecution ended under Constantine the Great, Bishops of all Diocesan Churchesin
$Greek 4astern 4mpire% and
$6atin 3estern 4mpire% met togetheras eFuals at collegial 4cumenical Councils despite their language dierences! 2oonafter, this collegiality of the 4cumenical Councils was oershadowed by powerful7etropolitan Caucuses of both the 6atin ?ope of ome and the Greek ?atriarch of Constantinople! 6ater struggle for dominance between ome and Constantinoplecaused the #rst rift in the ))
century! In )+=. 'D the 4astern Greek $<rthodoE% Churchand the 3estern 6atin $Catholic% Church split communion due to the
controersy of =1 'D on the procession of the &oly 2pirit, marriage ersus celibacy of clergy and political struggle for supremacy between the ?atriarch of Constantinoplecapital of 4astern oman $ByHantium% 4mpire and the ?ope of ome capital of 3estern&oly oman 4mpire! The split became hostile when in )+., 3estern Crusaders notonly attacked 7uslim >ihadists but also attacked to destroy or capture 4astern Churchesin the 8ourth Crusades! The neEt split in the 3estern 6atin Church under ome was in the )/
centuryeformation! The eformers whose ecclesiastical and magisterial reforms producednational Churches, protested against ome5s unscriptural doctrines as well as omandogmatic claim of apostolic monopoly and administratie dominance of their ?ope oerthe ?atriarchs and Bishops of other national Churches! 3ithin the ?rotestant nations,more radical separatist eformers $'nabaptist, Congregationalists, etc% also furtherprotested against their local ?rotestant Bishops and national ?rotestant Churches!
N(tic" that %hil" th" )a+ist"rial R"*(r)"rs pr(t"st"' *(r #ati(#alistic'(ctri#al i#'"p"#'"#c" *r() R()"- th" ra'ical s"paratist r"*(r)"rspr(t"st"' *(r i#'i,i'ualistic '(ctri#al i#'"p"#'"#c" *r() th"ir #ati(#s
century, eorts of 4cumenical moements and the 3orld Council of Churcheshae led to union of seeral old ?rotestant Denominations in China $)1*%, Thailand$)10.%, (apan $)1.)%, and the ?hilippines $)1..% with the most heralded eEamplesbeing the nited Church of Canada $)1=%, the Church of 2outh India $)1.*%, and theChurch of ;orth India $)1*+%! <n the other hand, the +
century resurgence of eccentricity, egocentrism and commercialism has also led to more schisms andmushrooming of many new proprietary denominations!
FORMS OF CHURCH 0O3ERNMENT OR POLIT4
Denominations claim their own selectiely preferred form of Church goernment is themost biblical but the truth is that none of these is purely or comprehensiely biblical!