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NCERT Book Psychology XII

NCERT Book Psychology XII

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Published by KanishkaVKhatri
Actually, I have opted Psychology and Philosophy as my optionals that's why I can provide more study materials in these two subjects. Materials from other subjects are always welcome. This document contains NCERT's standard twelvth (XII) textbook for Psychology!
Actually, I have opted Psychology and Philosophy as my optionals that's why I can provide more study materials in these two subjects. Materials from other subjects are always welcome. This document contains NCERT's standard twelvth (XII) textbook for Psychology!

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Published by: KanishkaVKhatri on May 28, 2009
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VARIAVARIAVARIAVARIAVARIATIONS IN PSYTIONS IN PSYTIONS IN PSYTIONS IN PSYTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL ATCHOLOGICAL ATCHOLOGICAL ATCHOLOGICAL ATCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTESTRIBUTESTRIBUTESTRIBUTESTRIBUTES
IntroductionIndividual Differences in Human Functioning Assessment of Psychological AttributesIntelligence Theories of Intelligence
 Theory of Multiple Intelligences Triarchic Theory of IntelligencePlanning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive Model of Intelligence
Individual Differences in Intelligence
 Variations of Intelligence
Some Misuses of Intelligence Tests 
(Box 1.1)
Culture and IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence
Characteristics of Emotionally Intelligent Persons 
(Box 1.2)
Special Abilities
 Aptitude :
 
Nature and Measurement 
Creativity
CONTENTS
Key TermsSummaryReview QuestionsProject Ideas WeblinksPedagogical Hints After reading this chapter, you would be able to:
understand psychological attributes on which people differ from each other,learn about different methods that are used to assess psychological attributes,explain what constitutes intelligent behaviour,learn how psychologists assess intelligence to identify mentally challengedand gifted individuals,understand how intelligence has different meaning in different cultures, andunderstand the difference between intelligence and aptitude.
 
Psychology 2
exemplifies a typical combination of  various traits. The question which you may like to pose is how and why people differ. This, in fact, is the subject matter of thestudy of 
individual differences
.
 
Fopsychologists,
 
individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among  people’s characteristics and behaviour  patterns.
 While many psychologists believe that our behaviours are influenced by our personal traits, some others hold the view that our behaviours are influenced more by situational factors. This latter view isknown as
situationism
, which states that situations and circumstances in which oneis placed influence one’s behaviour. A person, who is generally aggressive, may  behave in a submissive manner in thepresence of her/his top boss. Sometimes,the situational influences are so powerfulthat individuals with differing personality traits respond to them in almost the same ways.
The situationist perspective views human behaviour as resulting from interaction of external and internal factors.
I
NDIVIDUAL 
D
IFFERENCES
 
IN
H
UMAN
F
UNCTIONING
Individual variations are common withinand across all species. Variations addcolour and beauty to nature. For a moment, think of a world around you where each and every object is of the samecolour, say red or blue or green. How wouldthe world appear to you? Certainly not a  beautiful one! Would you prefer to live insuch a world? In all likelihood, your answer will be ‘no’. Like objects, people toopossess different combinations of traits. Variability is a fact of nature, andindividuals are no exception to this. They  vary in terms of physical characteristics,such as height, weight, strength, hair colour, and so on. They also vary alongpsychological dimensions. They may beintelligent or dull, dominant or submissive,creative or not so creative, outgoing or  withdrawn, etc. The list of variations can be endless. Different traits can exist in varying degrees in an individual. In thissense, each one of us is unique as s/he
If you observe your friends, classmates or relatives, you will find how they differ from each other in the manner they perceive, learn, and think, as also in their performance on various tasks. Such individual differences can be noticed in every walk of life. That people differ from one another is obvious.In Class XI, you have learnt about psychological principles that are applied to understand human behaviour. We also need to know how people differ,what brings about these differences, and how such differences can be assessed. You will recall how one of the main concerns of modern psychology has been the study of individual differences from the time of Galton. This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences.One of the most popular psychological attributes which has been of interest to psychologists is Intelligence. People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas, adapt to environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles.In this chapter, you will study the nature of intelligence, changing definitions of intelligence, cultural differences in intelligence, range and variations in the intellectual competencies of people, and the nature of special abilities or aptitudes.
Introduction

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