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Modul 5 Indices & Logarithms

# Modul 5 Indices & Logarithms

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SPM Add Math - notes & exercises; Modul 5 Indices & Logarithms
SPM Add Math - notes & exercises; Modul 5 Indices & Logarithms

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06/24/2013

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5 Indices & Logarithms
1
5. INDICES AND LOGARITHMS
IMPORTANT NOTES :UNIT 5.1 Law of IndicesI. a
m
x a
n
= a
m + n
II. a
m
a
n
= a
m – n
III (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
Other Results : a
0
= 1 ,
mm
aa
1
, (ab)
m
= a
m
b
m
1.
100
0
= 3
2
= (3
p
)
2
=
5.1.1 “BACK TO BASIC”
BIL
a
m
a
n
= a
m + n
a
m
a
n
= a
m – n
(a
m
)
n
= a
mn
1.
a
3
× a
2
= a
3 + 2
= a
5
a
4
a = a
5 – 1
= a
4
(a
3
)
2
= a
3x2
= a
6
2.
2
3
× 2
4
= 2
3 + 4
= 2
a
3
a
5
= a
3 – 5
= a
=
2
1
a
(3
2
)
4
= 3
2x4
= 3
3.
p
3
× p
– 4
= p
3 + ( – 4)
= p
=p
– 4
p
5
= p
– 4 – 5
= p
=
p
1
(p
5
)
2
= p
– 5 x2
= p
=
4.
2k
3
× (2k)
3
= 2k
3
× 2
3
×
3
= ( )
(4a)
2
2a
5
= (4
2
a
2
)
(2a
5
)=
52
216
aa
=(3
x
2
)
3
= 3
3
×
x
2x3
=

5 Indices & Logarithms
2
UNIT 5.2 SIMPLE EQUATIONS INVOLVING INDICES
No
Example Exercise 1 Exercise 2
1.
3
x
= 813
x
= 3
4
x
= 42
x
= 32
x
=4
x
= 64
x
=
2.
8
x
= 16(2
3
)
x
= 2
4
2
3
x
= 2
4
3
x
= 4
x
=
34
4
x
= 32
x
=27
x
= 9
x
=
3.
8
x
= 16
x – 3
(2
3
)
x
= 2
4(x – 3)
2
3x
= 2
4x – 12
3
x
= 4
x
12
x
= 124
x+2
= 32
x - 1
x
=27
1 –
x
= 9
2
x
x
=
4.
2 × 8
2x
= 16
x + 3
2
1
× (2
3
)
x
= 2
4 (x + 3)
2
1+3x
= 2
4x + 12
1 + 3
x
= 4
x
+ 121 12 = 4
x
3
x x
= 1116 × 4
2x – 3
= 32
2 – x
x
=25
1 – 3x
= 5 × 125
x
x
=
Suggested Steps:S1 : Use the laws of indices to simplify expression(if necessary)S2 : Make sure the base is the SAMES3 : Form a linear equation by equating the indicesS4 : Solve the linear equation

5 Indices & Logarithms
3
UNIT 5.2 LOGARITMS
Do YOU know that ....
If a numberNcan be expressed in theformN=a
x
, then the logarithm of N tothe baseais
x
?
N= a
x
log
a
N =
x
100= 10
2
log
10
100=264= 4
3
log
4
64=30.001= 10
-3
log
10
0.001=3

## Activity (142)

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