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Preliminary Report Revised

Preliminary Report Revised

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Published by Jim Lloyd
Preliminary report is the report made before any experimental research is made. This is to evaluate the proposed research and to give the researcher and his mentor the background of the study they are about to take. This is a preliminary report for "CHF in Cation Exchange for Water Softening: Performance & Equipment Design".
Preliminary report is the report made before any experimental research is made. This is to evaluate the proposed research and to give the researcher and his mentor the background of the study they are about to take. This is a preliminary report for "CHF in Cation Exchange for Water Softening: Performance & Equipment Design".

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Published by: Jim Lloyd on May 29, 2009
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CHF in Cation Exchange for Water Softening:Performance and Equipment DesignA Preliminary Report
Maricris A. Alguzar Keith Arleigh M. EduavaLloyd Jim J. Odchigue
To realize the application of coconut husk fiber (CHF) in industrial water softening andestablish the adsorbent as potential alternative for the expensive synthetic resin used inion exchange, a plant which compose of a CHF manufacturing and water softeningfacilities was designed. The plant, which produces 500 kg of CHF pellets/day and 1000gal/h of soft water, aims to reduce the cost of industrial water softening and minimizeinorganic solid waste. This was achieved by decreasing the cost of producing CHFthrough pelletizing CHF to make use of the existing ion exchange columns and reuse of spent brine for preliminary washing of fiber, which in turn increase the efficiency of the process design. Also, considered in the design were major constraints such as capital cost,market competition and environmental effects of the facilities’ wastes and emissions.This Preliminary Report for the study entitled
“CHF in Cation Exchange for WaterSoftening: Performance and Equipment Design”
 prepared and submitted by MaricrisA. Alguzar, Keith Arleigh M. Eduava and Lloyd Jim J. Odchigue, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course in
 Plant Design and Project Study
has been examined,and endorsed for submission and/or oral presentation.
Engr. Melba T. Mendoza
Faculty Research Adviser 
The high cost of industrial water softening and growing concern for the environment haslead to the development of low-cost, organic ion-exchange materials. One of thematerials recently being studied is the coconut husk fiber (CHF), an organic adsorbent-cation-exchanger which may prove to be a potential alternative for the expensivesynthetic resins. Thus, the process design aims to reduce the cost of soft water productionand minimize inorganic solid waste by designing a plant which has (a) a CHF productionfacility that produces 500 kg of pelletized CHF/ day, and (b) a water softening facilitythat employs CHF as cation exchanger in the reduction of carbonate hardness to at most 2 ppm for a plant where soft water requirement does not exceed 1000 gal/ hour.
A successful design is achieved when a logical procedure is followed to meet a specificneed. This procedure, called the design process, is similar to the scientific method withrespect to its step by step routine. According to Haik (2003), a design process holdswithin its structure an iterative procedure. “As the engineer proceeds through the steps,new information may be discovered and new objectives may be specified, at which timethe steps may require revisiting” (Haik, 2003).The researchers of the previous study entitled “CHF in Cation Exchange for theProduction of Softwateralso designed a CHF production and water softening plantwhich involved the use of some of the unit operations processes for the small-scale production of CHF, similar to this study’s design. These include; defibering, washing, sundrying, cutting, screening, tray drying, CHF treatment, washing and packaging. Becausethere were not many scientific studies done in CHF’s ion-exchanging capacity, this gaverise to the current study “CHF in Cation Exchange for Water Softening: Performance andEquipment Design. Although, both studies used
development design
, where in, thedesigner starts from an existing design, the final outcome may differ markedly from theinitial product. Thus, the researchers used different approaches. For one thing, the final product of the previous design is a fiber while the present is a pellet form. CHF in pelletforms prevents the material from being carried off by the flowing water and increase the
capacity of the column by increasing the amount of material per unit volume. The proposed design also differs from the previous one in terms of the reuse of spent water and solutions. The liquid used in the preliminary washing of the fiber is a mixture of spent brine from the regeneration process and used water from the secondary washing.This in turn reduces the operation at cost of producing CHF.
Coconut husk fiber (CHF) is cheap and almost always available. But because its capacityis less than that of the synthetic resins in terms of amount of hardness removed per unitmass of material, the process is designed and its parameters specified to produce notgreater than 500 kg CHF/ h and 1000 gal/h of soft water. These limitations are primarilydue to the following considerations: (1) capital cost, (2) market competition, and (3)environmental impact and legal restrictions.
Capital Cost
An ion exchanger whose medium has less capacity than that of the commercial syntheticresins requires more materials to reduce water hardness to a specific standard level. In thedesign of ion exchange columns, this increase in the material requirement would mean anincrease in column diameter or height which extent is determined through how less thecapacity of the material is. More materials to be used would mean more capital cost. Inaddition, most industries requiring soft water already have water softening facilities inthem and replacement of such is not economically practical.
Market Competition
 Nowadays, business development success is defined by the ability to be the first todeliver a product to the market. There are two ways to gain a market share: productdifferentiation and manufacturing a product at the lowest possible conversion cost.However, market competition against the established synthetic resins is fierce.
Environmental Impact and Legal Restrictions

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