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Davanam Cultivation

Davanam Cultivation

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Published by Eswara Reddy
DAVANAM CULTIVATION
DAVANAM CULTIVATION

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Published by: Eswara Reddy on Aug 09, 2013
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DAVANAM ( Artemisia pallens)
S ESWARA REDDY
 
INTRODUCTION
Davana Oil is one of theimportant essential oils. Essentialoils obtained from higher plantsare important raw materials usedfor themanufactureof perfumes,flavours and cosmetics. Evenwith considerable developmentin production of synthetic perfumery and flavouringchemicals, essential oils continueto be the important raw materialsfor these industries through outthe world. The general realisationof health hazards associated withthe synthetic material has led toincreased use of natural rawmaterials, especially for highgrade perfumes and flavours.Such natural raw material should be more important for futureindustrial development in thethird world, as production of these materials does not dependupon the traditional sources of energy, like petroleum or coal, but the oils are obtained fromrenewable energy sources.In view of its wide variety of climate and soil, India is one of the few countries in the world,where all the major essential oilsused in perfumery, cosmetics or flavour industries can be produced in one or the other regions of the country.There are around 2000 species of medicinal and aromatic plans thathave been reported in India.The botanical name of Davana isArtemisia pallens. It is known asDavanam in Telugu andKannada.During the last decade, theessential oils from leaves andflavours of Artemisia havereceived much commercialattention due to their use in the perfumery and in medicine.
PROPERTIES
Oil of Davana is a brownish,viscous liquid of peculiar, veryaromatic, some what balsamic
 
and persistant odour. Freshlydistilled oil has sharp and herbaltop notes. This disappears onkeeping, leaving a mellow pleasant note.Specific gravity 15.5 deg.C-0.9605Refractive index - 1.488Devaone, a sesquitepene ketone,is the main component of the oilof Davana. Linalool, dehydro-a-linalool, terpinen-4 oil,nordavanone and davanafuranshave been isolated in a fractionof Davana oil. These compoundsare reported to contribute to thecharacteristic odour of Davanaoil.
SPECIFICATION
Indian Standard Institutions hasnot prescribed any specificationfor Davana oil. However, therange of some values obtained bythe analysis of a recent sample of Davana oil in CIMAP Laboratoryare given below.Range in physicochemicalcharacteristics of Davana oil produced in South India.Colour : Clear, brownish yellowliquidOdour : Very rich lingering fruityodour Refractive index : 1.4794 to1.4917 at 25 deg. CSpecific gravity : 0.9394 to0.9560 at 25 deg.CAcid Value : Less than 3.5Ester value : 31.5 to 46.5Solubility : Clearly soluble inless than1.5 volumes of 80% ethyl alcoholTotal ketone content: 36 to 56%expressed as davanoneFree davanone as per GC: 25 to52.5%.
APPLICATIONS
Oil of Davana is used inexpensive perfume compositions:It is also being used for flavouring cakes, pastries,tobacco and some of the costly beverages. The level of use of Davana oil is on the lower side
 
due to the prevailing high pricefor Davan oil.Artemisia-pallens is an annual,aromatic, south Indian plant,specially found around Mysorecity. It is also cultivated in theneighborhood of Pune.It generally grows in theneighbor hood of sandalwoodtrees. This herb is prized for itsfruity fragrance and forms animportant component in garland, bouquets and floral decorations.The springs of Davana providean element of freshness and arich sumptuousness odour. Theherb is very valuable for itsessential, Davana oil.
PROCESS OFCULTIVATION
Davana is mostly cultivated inthe red soil regions in SouthIndia. It comes up very well inrich loamy soils. Considerablecare is necessary in thecultivation and harvesting thecrop.Davana is an annual herb, familycompositor, requiring about four months to reach maturity, atwhich it attains a height of about1 1/2 feet. According to theresearch findings, two distinctvarieties of the plant occur. Thisfact is of considerableimportance in the production of Davana oil.Season is not an importantcriteria when Davana is grownfor use in garlands and bouquets.In this case, the crop is pulled outwhen it is about two months old.On the other hand, season is veryimportant when the crop isgrown for production of oil. Thecrop is allowed to grow until itflowers, which take about 4months from sowing. It is grownas a short term crop from November to February/Marchand as a ratoon crop extending upto April/May. A few lightshowers in the season, brightsunshine, a crisp winter with nofirst and heavy morning dew, allcontribute to a good crop. Thecrop does not withstand heavyrains. Particularly, when the cropis blooming and is getting readyfor harvest, cloudy weather or rain could substantially affect theoil yield.Total yield of fresh herbage fromthe main crop and the ratoon crop

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