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Physics - Introduction to Differential Geometry and General Relativity

Physics - Introduction to Differential Geometry and General Relativity

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Published by: Junior on May 29, 2009
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12/22/2011

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IntroductiontoDifferential Geometry&General Relativity
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Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Hofstra University
 
2
Introduction to Differential Geometry and General RelativityLecture Notes by Stefan Waner,with a Special Guest Lecture by Gregory C. LevineDepartment of Mathematics, Hofstra UniversityThese notes are dedicated to the memory of Hanno Rund.TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Preliminaries: Distance, Open Sets, Parametric Surfaces and Smooth Functions2. Smooth Manifolds and Scalar Fields3. Tangent Vectors and the Tangent Space4. Contravariant and Covariant Vector Fields5.
 
Tensor Fields6. Riemannian Manifolds7. Locally Minkowskian Manifolds: An Introduction to Relativity8. Covariant Differentiation9. Geodesics and Local Inertial Frames10. The Riemann Curvature Tensor11. A Little More Relativity: Comoving Frames and Proper Time12. The Stress Tensor and the Relativistic Stress-Energy Tensor13. Two Basic Premises of General Relativity14. The Einstein Field Equations and Derivation of Newton's Law15. The Schwarzschild Metric and Event Horizons16. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes, by Gregory C. Levine
 
3
1. PreliminariesDistance
 
and Open Sets
Here, we do just enough topology so as to be able to talk about smooth manifolds. Webegin with
n
-dimensional Euclidean space
 E 
n
= {(y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
n
) | y
i
é
R
}
.Thus,
 E 
1
is just the real line,
 E 
2
is the Euclidean plane, and
 E 
3
is
3-
dimensional Euclideanspace.The
magnitude
, or
norm
,
||yy y y||
of 
 yy y y= (y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
n
)
in
 E 
n
is defined to be
||yy y y|| = y
12
+y
22
+...+y
n2
,
which we think of as its distance from the origin. Thus, the
distance
between two points
 yy y y= (y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
n
)
and
 zz z z= (z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
n
)
in
 E 
n
is defined as the norm of 
 zz z z- yy y y:
Distance Formula
Distance between
yyyy
and
 zz z z
=
||zz z z----yy y y|| = (z
1
-y
1
)
2
+(z
2
-y
2
)
2
+...+(z
n
-y
n
)
2
.
Proposition 1.1 (Properties of the norm)
The norm satisfies the following:
(a)
 
||yy y y|| ≥ 0
, and
||yy y y|| = 0
iff 
 yy y y= 0 (
positive definite)
(b)
 
||¬yy y y|| = |||yy y y||
for every
 ¬ é
R
and
 yy y yé E 
n
.
(c)
 
||yy y y+ zz z z|| ≤ ||yy y y|| + ||zz z z||
for every
 yy y y
,
 zz z zé E 
n
(triangle inequality 1)
(d)
 
||yy y y- zz z z|| ||yy y y----wwww|| + ||wwww----zz z z||
for every
 yy y y,,,,zz z z,,,,wwwwé E 
n
(triangle inequality 2)The proof of Proposition 1.1 is an exercise which may require reference to a linear algebratext (see “inner products”).
Definition 1.2
A Subset
of 
 E 
n
is called
open
if, for every
 yy y y
in
, all points of 
 E 
n
withinsome positive distance
r
of 
 yy y y
are also in
. (The size of 
r
may depend on the point
 yy y y
chosen. Illustration in class).Intuitively, an open set is a solid region minus its boundary. If we include the boundary,we get a
closed set
, which formally is defined as the complement of an open set.
Examples 1.3(a)
If 
a é E 
n
, then the
open ball with center
aaaa
and radius
rrrr
is the subset
 B(aaaa, r) = {x é E 
n
| ||xx x x-aaaa|| < r}.

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