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Unit1

Unit1

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UNIT
1
INTRODUCTION TO DEFECTS
Structure
1.1
Introduction
Objectives
1.2
Inspection, Assessment, Maintenance, Repair
1.2.1 Assessment Present Condition
1
1.2.2
Life
Assessment and Strengthening
1.3
Defects
-
General
1.3.1
.
Causes1.3.2 Monitoring of Structures1.3.3 Non-destructiveTests
i
1.3.4 Causes of Deterioration1.3.5 Defects
in
Matd~onstruction Gened
1.4
Timber
1.4.1 Con~mon ypes1.4.2 Plywood, Laminated Boards1.4.3 Moisture Content1.4.4Seasoning
-
Limiting Moisture Content1.4.5
Use
f Preservatives1.4.6 ~ommonresehatives1.4.7 Preservatives Developed
Abroad
1.4.8 Safe Use of Preservatives
1.6
Concrete
1.7
Sanitary Installation and Plumbing
1.8
Floors1.9 Defects
-
Stone/Brick Construction
1.10
~kpness~~e~ge
1.10.1 I>am@ess1.10.2 Leakage1.10.3 Treatment
-
Dampness/Leakage
I
1.1
1
Strengthening of Cracked Beam
1.12
Summary1.1
3
Answers to SAQs
1.1
INTRODUCTION
The level of civilisation of any country is measured by the
type
and quality of structuresand developmental works put up. ?he construction activity is mainly
in
the hands of CivilEngineers
to
build structures without flows. It should
be
your determination to ensuredefect free construction.
Any
neglect by you as a civil engineer will lead to create anadverse impression about the profession itself.
Management of Existing
Stock
The burrent economic approach has switched the minds of governments throughout theworld from new projects requiring large capital investment to the management of existingstock of building and structures. In that sense the recession has come as a blessing tocstablish the importance of management
tasks
of inspection, assessment, maintenance andrepair.
Construction Management
During the period of about
30
years
or
so after the second world war many structures weredesigned and built with little or no thought given
to
the long term requirements of theirfuture durability. This induced research and development, rather the view has changed andconstruction management is now given the prominence it deserves. It has now beenaccepted that even in concept and design, durability of the structure should be kept inmind. Constructiot~management is in effect the framework necessary to ensure
a
rational
 
L)efectq
in
Buildings
overall quality of
any
structure from conception
to
the
end of its nominal life and beyond.Hopefully
the
magic instances of structures loit to
the
revaging effects of corrosion,erosion, dwgedue to overloading etc., will decrease if not disappear altogether. Not onlywill this result
in
the saving of vast amounts of expenditure
on
repairs but
it
will also savelives and demonstrate
to
the public at large that Construction Engineers are capable ofcarrying out their work
in
professional and responsible manner.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you shouldbeable
to:
identify defects in general
in
building construction.describe the defects
of
timber and steel.know the cause of defects
in
concrete, sanitary installation and plumbing,flooring, etc., andlalow the general repair nlethods of various defects
in
building construction.
1.2
INSPECTION, ASSESSMENT, MAINTENANCE,REPAIR
?he present series of lessons deal with inspection assessment maintenance and repair.Evidently you eye
as
a civil Construction Engineer must be centered on avoidiilg defectsin the entire cmstruction process starting from planningtothe end of the life of thestructure. Accordingly you will be studying about possible defects at all stages of
the
construction flogramme, the causes that give rise
to
the defects
and
also appropriate waysfor carrying out repairs.
1.2.1 Asswment Present Condition
Inspection and condition assessment are now well practiced sciences, but strengthassessrnent baded on design philosophy and theory has shown
in
many cases tounder-estimate the real strength
of
a structure and greater understanding is essential
in
thikarea to ensure Ulat structures are not condemned unnecessarily. Assessment techniquesapplied
in
the field to determine actual working stresses also need development not only totest our theories but also to ensure that realistic estimates
are
made of the future useful lifeof structures. ~iallyound strengthening techniques need
to be
developed andimplemented
in
an
economical manner.
1.2.2
Life
Assessment and Strengthening
.
The above is ody
to
instill in you a keen interest about the subject of life assessment ofstructures for determining strengthening measures if necessary. Only
an
outline isindicated and it lis for you to enrich your knowledge by detailed study of the subject.Coming to the subject proper concerning the series of lessons, defects arise at
all
stages oftheconstruction~program.e. planning, designing,
detailing
and execution andmaintenance. The environment also plays its
part
to make defects.
1.3.1
Causes
Interactions between singular causes of deterioration
in
structures
are
numerous and couldgreatly accelerate the deterioration.
The
singular causes
of
importance
are:a) Selection
of
defective site,b) Impfoper area drainage,c) Inadqquate design,d) Insufficient reinforcement,e) Substandard quality in
cmsimction,
f)
Insufficient protection against rain water,g) Chlodide contamination,
 
h) Sulphate attack,i) Thermal effects, and
j)
Lack of maintenance.
1.3.2 Monitoring of Structures
Monitoring of structures is gaining in importauce as the cost of maintenance and repairsincreases dramatically due to deterioration due to overloads,
air
pollution, acid rain etc.
In
order to guarantee the durability of structures over a long period of time it is necessary tomonitor the structures on a permanent basis. Cracks in structures, changes in the stressstrain behaviour of structural elements
are
to be monitored using optical fiber scusorsrecently developed.
1.3.3 Non-destructive Tests
The procedures for v&ous Nondestructive tests have been well developed and require to
be
used for monitoring purpose. All the experts agree that without doubt maintenance costof structures
can
be reduced significantly by a proper surveillance to detectdefects/damages
in
an
early stage.
1.3.4 Causes of Deterioration
Although building deterioration is dependent on the type of structure, how it was designed
.
and detailed, how it was constructed, how it was maintained and its environment thecommon causes of deterioration are similar regardless of these factors which primarilyinfluence the degree and extent of deterioration. Causes of deterioration can be classifiedon the basis of materials of construction.
1.3.5 Defects in Materials/Construction
-
General
The study of the lessons in this course will enrich your knowledge about defects and theircauses in the various building construction materials, defects that arise from wrong designspecification and construction methods and also those caused by environmental effectsthrough wind, water, heat and aggressive chemicals. Appropriate repair methods areexplained in detail. Monitoring through
NDT
ests and sophisticated sensors is alsopointed out for effective maintenance. You will be able to ensureexcellence/qualitythroughout the expected life of structure and even beyond.
t
1.4
TIMBER
Wood
is a popular construction material. Both hardwood and soft wood can
be
used forstructural purposes.
In
practice most of todays carpenters use a mix of plywoods, sawednatural wood and even new wood substitutes. Plywoods are available in many thicknessesand types including water and pest proof ply. Along with ply you could use laminates likeFormica, Melmica or wood veneer which has thefinish of natural wood.
1.4.1 CommonTypes
The most commonly used natural woods in India are teak rosewood
and
cedar.
Off theSeteak is most popular thanks to its strength, durability and grain and many kind of finishespossible with it. But when buying teak you should know that there are several grades ofthis wood- from very poor quality which will warp of crack over
time,
to the finest teaklike Burma teak.
1.4.2
Plywood,
Laminated Boards
Because they are layered and bonded plywoods can often be very strong and long lastingeven tougher than natural wood. Among the new wood substitutes is medium density fibreboard (MDF). For the home it can be used for doors, windows even for panelling floorsceilings.
An
exterior grade variety of MDF is designed to withstand humidity, you caneven get MDF with lamination either on one side or both. And
as
brand names likeDuratuff suggest, wood substitutes can have many plus points
-
durability, fire, termite,moisture and sound resistance.
1.4.3 Moisture Content
Moisture content affects the properties of timber. Many defecb are possible because ofnatural causes during the growth itself. Outbreaks of attack are nearly always due to excess

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