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JIS a Grammar - Complex Sentence 1

JIS a Grammar - Complex Sentence 1

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Published by: Stephen Luft on May 30, 2009
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07/17/2013

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JIS-A: Grammar: complex sentence 1
名前
: ________________________________________ 5/18/2009The explanation is on the back. Make sure you read it first!
次の文章を、日本語で書きなさい
:
 
*For each of these sentences, the context is that you are writing a paper. Only the underlined portion needs to be given in Japanese. The other part is to help understand the context for theunderlined sentence. Again,
only write the underlined part in Japanese.
1. There are many reasons that international conflicts occur. One is that cultural differences arenot understood. _______________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. In the 1940s, bad feelings existed between Americans and the Japanese. One reason is thatJapan and America were at war. _______________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. There are many differences between Japanese and American culture. One is that Japan andAmerica eat different kinds of food. _______________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. While there are many differences between Japanese and American culture, there are also manysimilarities. One similarity is that both Japanese and Americans enjoy sports. _______________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ 5. There are many different ways to resolve conflicts. One way is to have a discussion. _______________________________________________________________________________  _______________________________________________________________________________ 
 
While in English verbs go in the middle of the sentence, in Japanese, verbs go at the end of thesentence. This creates an interesting situation for the second sentence in the following example:There are many differences between American and Japanese sports.
One is that the Japaneseusually cheer as a group.
This second sentence actually consists of two simple sentences, one being “the Japanese usuallycheer as a group” and the other being “one is (that) X”, where X is the second sentence.To take the sentence “one is (that) X” and put it in Japanese, we get “
一つは
X
です”
. The problem is that we often forget to put the
です
in! After all, in English the X is the last part of the simple sentence “one is (that) X”, so we don’t need to worry about putting anythingafterwards. Thus, the following example is
BAD
:
一つは、日本人がたいてい一緒に応援する。
What is usually done is to put the phrase “
ということです”
at the end. This gives us a “
です” 
at the end to make a complete sentence, and the “
ということ”
 performs a function similar to“that” which was found in the English sentence (although these are most definitely
not
interchangeable in most instances). Here is a good example:
一つは、日本人がたいてい一緒に応援するということです。
So, make sure that when you want to start a sentence with something like “one reason is that…”or “one difference is that…” in Japanese, you put something like “
ということです”
at theend.One final note relates to the embedded sentence, the “the Japanese usually cheer as a group”sentence, the one that has “
一つは”
on one side and “
ということです”
on the other side.(That’s why it’s called an embedded sentence). When this sentence is embedded, the
は”
thatwould mark the subject turns to “
が”
. So the following sentence:
日本人はたいてい一緒に応援する。
turns into this:
日本人がたいてい一緒に応援する。
when it is embedded, like this:

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