E. T. Contis et al. (Editors)Food Flavors: Formation, Analysis and Packaging Influences© 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved 659
Gy. Patkai, J. Monspart-Senyi and J. Barta
Department for CanningTechnology,University for Horticulture and FoodIndustry,P.O.Box H'1052 Budapest Pf53, Hungary
Both the seasoning and antimicrobial effect of garhc
was investigated in salad-dressings and ketchup. The testmicroorganims were:
Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus
The organolepticallyoptimal concentration of garlic oil made by extraction was high enough to ensuremicrobiological stability of ketchup. However, the concentration of oil of horse-radishneeded for microbial stability was sufficiently high to become organoleptically undesirable.
Volatile oils of spices have an antimicrobial effect in addition to their stimulating effect ondigestion and appetit. Theoretically they could be used as natural food preservatives, but theconcentration needed for microbiological stability is generally associated with an intolerabletaste.Nevertheless, these oils may have an important role combined with other foodpreserving treatments.The authors investigated simultaneously the seasoning and antimicrobial effect of volatile oilsof garlic and of horse-radish. The aim of this work was to determine the optimalconcentration for improving microbial stability, while at the same time adding desirableflavor and seasoning to salad-dressings and to tomato ketchup.
- Separation of garlic oil by extraction with ethyl-ether and by steam distillation900 g of cleaned and pulped garlic were extracted in four steps with 1800 cm^(600+600+400+200 cm^) ethyl-ether. After separation of
liquid and solid phases bydecantation the ethyl-ether was perfectly removed by hot-air stream, so only the puregarlic oil-remained for sensory and microbiological investigations. During this process thetemperature of the extractant was about
because of the intensiv evaporation.The steam-distillation of the volatile components was performed from the mixture of 500g garlic pulpe and 1000
water. (Temperature: 100°C; duration: 70-80 min.) The first100 cm^ of the distillate were gathered, the aqueous and oily phases were separated, andthe oily phase was used for investigations.- The parameters of the separation of the volatile components of horse-radish by extractionwith ethyl-ether and by steam distillation were the same as above mentioned separationparameters of garlic oil.