can reproduce both asexually and sexually, depending on its life cycle stage.Asexual forms:
Immature trophozoites (Ring or signet-ring shaped), about 1/3 of the diameter of a RBC.
Mature trophozoites: Very irregular and delicate (described as
); many pseudopodial processes seen. Presence of fine grains of brown pigment (malarial pigment) or hematin probably derived from the haemoglobin of the infected red bloodcell.
Schizonts(also called meronts): As large as a normal red cell; thus the parasitizedcorpuslce becomes distended and larger than normal. There are about sixteen merozoites.Sexual forms: Gametocytes: Round. The gametocytes of P. vivax are commonly found in the peripheral blood at about the end of the first week of parasitemia.
Theincubation periodfor the infection usually ranges from ten to seventeen days and sometimesup to a year. Persistent liver stages allow relapse up to five years after elimination of red bloodcell stages and clinical cure.
] Human Infection
The infection of
takes place in human when an infected female anophelesmosquito sucks blood from a healthy person. During feeding, mosquito injects saliva to preventclotting of blood and along with the saliva, thousands of Sporozoites are inoculated into human blood and reproduce asexually giving rise to thousands of merozoites(Plasmodium daughter cells) in the circulatory system including liver.
sporozoite enters a hepatocyte and begins its exoerythrocytic schizogony stage. Thisis characterized by multiple rounds of nuclear division without cellular segmentation. After acertain number of nuclear divisions, the parasite cell will segment andmerozoitesare formed.There are situations where some of the sporozoites do not immediately start to grow and divideafter entering the hepatocyte, but remain in a dormant,hypnozoitestage for weeks or months.The duration of latency is variable from one hypnozoite to another and the factors that willeventually trigger growth are not known; this explains how a single infection can be responsiblefor a series of waves of parasitaemia or "relapses".
Different strains of
have their owncharacteristic relapse pattern and timing.
 Erythrocytic Cycle