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OCTONIONIC TERNARY GAUGE FIELD THEORIES REVISITED

OCTONIONIC TERNARY GAUGE FIELD THEORIES REVISITED

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Published by Kathryn Wilson
15 pages, revision to appear in the Int. J. Geom. Methods in Mod. Physics
15 pages, revision to appear in the Int. J. Geom. Methods in Mod. Physics

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Published by: Kathryn Wilson on Aug 11, 2013
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OCTONIONIC TERNARY GAUGEFIELD THEORIES REVISITED
CARLOS CASTRO
Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia. 30314, USAperelmanc@hotmail.com 
May 2013, Revised July 2013
Abstract
An octonionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed basedon a ternary-bracket defined earlier by Yamazaki. The ternary infinitesi-mal gauge transformations do obey the key
closure
relations [
δ 
1
,δ 
2
] =
δ 
3
.An invariant action for the octonionic-valued gauge fields is displayed aftersolving the previous problems in formulating a non-associative octonionicternary gauge field theory. These octonionc ternary gauge field theoriesconstructed here deserve further investigation. In particular, to studytheir relation to Yang-Mills theories based on the
G
2
group which is theautomorphism group of the Octonions and their relevance to Noncommu-tative and Nonassociative Geometry.
Keywords 
: Octonions; Ternary Algebras; Gauge Fields.
1 Introduction
Exceptional, Jordan, Division, Clifford, noncommutative and nonassociative al-gebras are deeply related and are essential tools in many aspects in Physics, see[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15] for references,among many others. A thorough discussion of the relevance of ternary andnonassociative structures in Physics has been provided in [16], [17], [18],[19],[20],[21]. The earliest example of nonassociative structures in Physics can be foundin Einstein’s special theory of relativity. Only colinear velocities are commu-tative and associative, but in general, the addition of non-colinear velocities isnon-associative and non-commutative.Great activity was launched by the seminal works of Bagger, Lambert andGustavsson (BLG) [22], [23], [24] who proposed a Chern-Simons type Lagrangiandescribing the world-volume theory of multiple
2-branes. The original BLGtheory requires the algebraic structures of generalized Lie 3-algebras and also1
 
of nonassociative algebras. Later developments by [25] provided a 3
D
Chern-Simons matter theory with
= 6 supersymmetry and with gauge groups
(
)
×
(
),
SU 
(
)
×
SU 
(
). The original construction of [25] did notrequire generalized Lie 3-algebras, but it was later realized that it could beunderstood as a special class of models based on Hermitian 3-algebras [26], [27].A Nonassociative Gauge theory based on the Moufang
7
loop product (not aLie algebra) has been constructed by [28], [29]. Taking the algebra of octonionswith a unit norm as the Moufang
7
-loop, one reproduces a nonassociativeoctonionic gauge theory which is a generalization of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills gauge theories based on Lie algebras.
BPST 
-like instantons solutionsin
D
= 8 were also found. These solutions represented the physical degreesof freedom of the transverse 8-dimensions of superstring solitons in
D
= 10preserving one and two of the 16 spacetime supersymmetries. Nonassociativedeformations of Yang-Mills Gauge theories involving the left and right bimodulesof the octonionic algebra were presented by [30]. Non-associative generalizationsof supersymmetry have been proposed by [31] which is very relevant to hiddenvariables theory and alternative Quantum Mechanics.The ternary gauge theory developed in this work differs from the work by[22], [23], [24], [28], [29] in that our 3-Lie algebra-valued gauge field strengths
µν 
are explicitly defined in terms of a 3-bracket [
A
µ
,A
ν 
,
g
] involving a 3-Lie algebra-valued coupling
g
=
g
a
t
a
. Whereas the definition of 
µν 
by [22], [23], [24] wasbased on the standard commutator of the matrices (˜
A
µ
)
ac
(˜
A
ν 
)
cb
(˜
A
ν 
)
ac
(˜
A
µ
)
cb
.These matrices were defined as
A
µ
=
A
abµ
cdab
= (˜
A
µ
)
cd
and given in terms of the structure constants
cdab
of the 3-Lie algebra [
t
a
,t
b
,t
c
] =
cdab
t
d
.In the next section we shall analyze Nonassociative Octonionic TernaryGauge Field Theories based on a ternary octonionic product with the fundamen-tal difference, besides the nonassociativity, that the structure constants
abcd
are
no
longer totally antisymmetric in their indices. Thus the bracket in the octo-nion case [[
A,B
]]
[
A,B,
g
] is
not
effectively a Lie bracket (as it occurs in the3-Lie algebra case) because the bracket [[
A,B
]] in the octonion case does
not
obey the Jacobi identity since the structure constants
abcd
are
no
longer totallyantisymmetric in their indices. This work is quite an improvement of our priorresults where we focused solely on the global rigid symmetries and homothecytransformations [32].A gauge symmetry in the conventional sense has a spacetime dependentgauge parameter. Here the spacetime dependence of the gauge parameter
enters
through a
scalar
field via a nonlinear symmetry transformation. Hence we mustemphasize that one does not have a conventional gauge symmetry as such butit is inspired from gauge theories.
1
It is shown that the octonionic-valued fieldstrength
µν 
=
aµν 
e
a
transforms homogeneously (covariantly) under gaugetransformations and that the Yang-Mills-like action is indeed invariant under
local
gauge transformations involving ternary octonionic brackets and antisym-metric gauge parameters Λ
ab
(
x
) =
Λ
ba
(
x
)
,a,b
= 0
,
1
,
2
,
3
,....
7. Furthermore,there is
closure
of these transformations based on antisymmetric parameters
1
We thank one referee for raising this important point
2
 
Λ
ab
=
Λ
ba
2 Octonionic Ternary Gauge Field Theories
The nonassociative and noncommutative octonionic ternary gauge field theoryis based on a ternary-bracket structure involving the octonion algebra. Theternary bracket obeys the fundamental identity (generalized Jacobi identity)and was developed earlier by Yamazaki [33]. Given an octonion
X
it can beexpanded in a basis (
e
o
,e
m
) as
X
=
x
o
e
o
+
x
m
e
m
, m,n,p
= 1
,
2
,
3
,.....
7
.
(2
.
1)where
e
o
is the identity element. The Noncommutative and Nonassociativealgebra of octonions is determined from the relations
e
2
o
=
e
o
, e
o
e
i
=
e
i
e
o
=
e
i
, e
i
e
j
=
δ 
ij
e
o
+
c
ijk
e
k
, i,j,k
= 1
,
2
,
3
,....
7
.
(2
.
2)where the fully antisymmetric structure constants
c
ijk
are taken to be 1 for thecombinations (124)
,
(235)
,
(346)
,
(457)
,
(561)
,
(672)
,
(713). The octonion conju-gate is defined by ¯
e
o
=
e
o
, ¯
e
i
=
e
i
¯
X
=
x
o
e
o
x
k
e
k
.
(2
.
3)and the norm is
(
X
) =
|
<
X X
>
|
12
=
|
Real
(¯
X X
)
|
12
=
|
(
x
o
x
o
+
x
k
x
k
)
|
12
.
(2
.
4)The inverse
X
1
=¯
X
<
X X
>,
X
1
X
=
XX
1
= 1
.
(2
.
5)The non-vanishing associator is defined by(
X
,
Y
,
Z
) = (
XY
)
Z
X
(
YZ
) (2
.
6)In particular, the associator(
e
i
,e
j
,e
k
) = (
e
i
e
j
)
e
k
e
i
(
e
j
e
k
) = 2
d
ijkl
e
l
d
ijkl
=13!
ijklmnp
c
mnp
, i,j,k....
= 1
,
2
,
3
,.....
7 (2
.
7)Yamazaki [33] defined the three-bracket as[
u, v, x
]
D
u,v
x
=12(
u
(
vx
)
v
(
ux
) + (
xv
)
u
(
xu
)
v
+
u
(
xv
)
(
ux
)
v
)
.
(2
.
8)3

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