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Lloyd et al v. City of New York

Lloyd et al v. City of New York

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Published by Doug Mataconis
Opinion in Lloyd et al v. City of New York by Judge Shira Scheindlin finding NYPD's "stop and frisk" policy unconstitutional
Opinion in Lloyd et al v. City of New York by Judge Shira Scheindlin finding NYPD's "stop and frisk" policy unconstitutional

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Doug Mataconis on Aug 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/11/2014

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UNITED
STATESDISTRICT COURTSOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK
--------------------------------------------------------
)(
DAVID FLOYD,
LALIT CLARKSON, DEON
DENNIS,
and
DAVID
OURLICHT,
individually
and
on
behalf of
a class
of
all others similarly situated,Plaintiffs,-
against-THE
CITYOFNEW YORK,
Defendant.
OPINION
AND
ORDER
08 Civ. 1034 (SAS)
I.
INTRODUCTION
......................................................
1 II.
E)(ECUTIVE
SUMMARy
...............................................
4 III. 
APPLICABLE LAW
.......
"
..........................................
15
A. 
Monell
Liability
.................................................
15 
B. Stops, Frisks,
and
Searches
Under
the
Fourth
Amendment
.............
18 
1. 
The
Definition
of
a Stop
.....................................
19 
2. 
Stops
Must
Be Based on Reasonable Suspicion
.................
22 
3. Protective
Frisks
for
Weapons
...............................
23 
4. 
Searching
into Clothing for
Weapons
.........................
25 
5. 
De
Bour
and
the
FourthAmendment
..........................
26 C.
Equal
Protection
Under
the
Fourteenth Amendment
..................
26 
IV. FINDINGS
OF
FACT
..................................................
30 
A. 
Overview
of
Uncontested Statistics
.................................
30 
B. 
Expert
Testimony
................................................
37
1.
The
Liability
Experts
.......................................
37 
2. 
The FourthAmendment
Claim
..............................
40 
a. Overview
of
Key Issues
...............................
40 b. 
Dr.
Fagan's
Methodof
Classifying Stops
................
41 
c. 
Unreliable Stop
Factors
...............................
43 
d. 
Quantifying
the
Magnitudeof Apparently
Unjustified Stops Based on UF -250
StopFactors
.........................
47 3. 
The Fourteenth Amendment
Claim
...........................
48 
Case 1:08-cv-01034-SAS-HBP Document 373 Filed 08/12/13 Page 1 of 198
 
a.Overview of Key Issues................................49b.Competing Benchmarks...............................49c.Findings Based on Dr. Fagans Analyses..................58C.Institutional Evidence of Deliberate Indifference.......................601.Early Notice: the 1999 AG Report.............................612.Pressure to Increase Stops....................................64a.Compstat: Pressure on Commanders.....................64b.Evidence of Pressure in Survey Data.....................67c.Further Evidence of Pressure on Officers.................71i.Pressure Before the 2010 Quota Law...............71ii.Pressure After 2010 Quota Law...................77d.Conclusion..........................................813.Targeting the Right People.................................814.Inadequate Monitoring and Supervision........................89a.Inadequate Documentation and Document Review.........89b. Inadequate Supervision................................955.Partially Inadequate Training................................996.Inadequate Discipline......................................1057.Ongoing Notice of Constitutional Violations....................111D.Individual Stops.................................................1171.Unconstitutional Stop and Frisk..............................119a.Leroy Downs........................................119i.Findings of Fact...............................119ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................122b.Devin Almonor......................................124i.Findings of Fact...............................124ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................127c.Cornelio McDonald..................................128i.Findings of Fact...............................128ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................132d.Nicholas Peart August 5, 2006.......................133i.Findings of Fact...............................133ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................136e.Nicholas Peart April 13, 2011 Stop...................138i.Findings of Fact...............................138ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................139f.Ian Provost.........................................140i.Findings of Fact...............................140ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................144g.David Ourlicht January 30, 2008 Stop................145i.Findings of Fact...............................145ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................148h.Clive Lino February 5, 2008 Stop....................149i.Findings of Fact...............................149ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................153
ii
Case 1:08-cv-01034-SAS-HBP Document 373 Filed 08/12/13 Page 2 of 198
 
i.Lalit Clarkson......................................154i.Findings of Fact...............................154ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................1562.Unconstitutional Frisk Only.................................156a.Dominique Sindayiganza..............................156i.Findings of Fact...............................157ii.Mixed Findings of Law and Fact.................160b.David Floyd April 20, 2007 Stop.....................161i.Findings of Fact...............................161ii.Mixed Finding of Fact and Law..................163c.David Floyd February 27, 2008 Stop..................163i.Findings of Fact...............................163ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................166d.Clive Lino February 24, 2011 Stop...................167i.Findings of Fact...............................167ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................170e.Deon Dennis........................................171i. Findings of Fact...............................171ii.Mixed Findings of Fact and Law.................1733.Failure of Proof...........................................174a.John Doe Stops of Nicholas Peart in Spring 2008 and February2010 and David Ourlicht in February and June 2008......174b.Kristianna Acevedo Stop..............................175c.Clive Lino August 3, 2008..........................177V.CONCLUSIONS OF LAW..............................................177A.The City Is Liable for Violations of Plaintiffs’ Fourth Amendment Rights...............................................................1771.Deliberate Indifference.....................................1782.Widespread Practice.......................................180B.The City Is Liable for Violations of Plaintiffs’ Fourteenth AmendmentRights.........................................................1811.Policy of Indirect Racial Profiling............................181a.Intentionally Discriminatory Application of a Facially Neutral Policy...................................................182b.Express Classification................................185c. Conclusion.........................................1882.Deliberate Indifference.....................................189VI.CONCLUSION.......................................................192
iii
Case 1:08-cv-01034-SAS-HBP Document 373 Filed 08/12/13 Page 3 of 198

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