model is superior to the others and fitsmany 1993 events (37-39).
Ch. 2: Civilizations in History andToday.
Scholars of civilization (40). Civilizationis a plural concept; a singular concept“cannot be sustained” (40-41). OutsideGerman, civilization is a cultural concept,composed of blood, language, way of life,and, especially, religion (41-42).Civilizations are comprehensive: “Acivilization is a ‘totality’”; however, theyhave no clear-cut boundaries in space ortime, and they can “interact and overlap”(42-43; cf. “Civilizations are the ultimatehuman tribes, and the clash of civilizations is tribal conflict on a globalscale” ). They are long-lived butmortal, and they evolve (43-44). Theyare not political and do not performgovernmental functions (44). Despitedisagreement on how many civilizationshave existed, “the identity of the majorcivilizations is not contested.‘Reasonable agreement’ . . . exists on atleast twelve major civilizations, seven of which no longer exist (Mesopotamian,Egyptian, Cretan, Classical, Byzantine,Middle American, Andean) and five whichdo (Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Islamic,and Western)” (44-45). Review of contemporary entities to whichHuntington accords the status of civilization: Sinic; Japanese; Hindu;Islamic; Orthodox; Western; LatinAmerican; African (possibly) (45-47).Buddhism is not associated with aparticular civilization (47-48). Rejectsconcept of Jewish civilization (48n.).
Encountersbefore A.D. 1500 (48-50). The rise of theWest (50-53). As the West declinesrelatively, the phenomena of civilization-generated religion and empire “began todisappear” (53-55).
Ch. 3: A Universal Civilization?Modernization and Westernization.U
Nouniversal civilization, in a deep andmeaningful sense, is developing (56-59).English is not becoming the worldlanguage because “[a]s power diffuses,Babelization spreads” (59-64). Auniversal religion is unlikely to emerge(64-66).
“The concept of a universal civilization isa distinctive product of Westerncivilization” (66). Neither the end of theCold War, nor increased trade, nor socialpsychology augur the emergence of auniversal civilization (66-68).
“Modernizationinvolves industrialization, urbanization,increasing levels of literacy, education,wealth, and social mobilization, and morecomplex and diversified occupationalstructures. It is a product of thetremendous expansion of scientific andengineering knowledge beginning in theeighteenth century” (68). It is distinctfrom Westernization, which involves theClassical legacy, the Catholic-Protestantdichotomy, European languages,separation of spiritual and temporalauthority, the rule of law, socialpluralism, representative bodies, andindividualism, among other things (69-72).
, e.g. Japanbefore the 1850s (72-73).
, i.e.embrace of both modernization andWesternization, e.g. Turkey under Ataturk(73-74).
, i.e. embrace of modernization and rejection of Westernization, the most popularresponse (74). Typically, societies havemore strongly away from Kemalism andtoward reformism over time (75-78).
II. THE SHIFTING BALANCE OFCIVILIZATIONSCh. 4: The Fading of the West:Power, Culture, and Indigenization.W
The power of the West is both dominantand in a slow, intermittent relativedecline (81-83). This can be measure interms of territory and populationcontrolled (84-86), economic product