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E Beam Lithography

E Beam Lithography

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Published by kaushik4208

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: kaushik4208 on May 31, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/18/2011

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1
E-BeamLithography
Ivor Brodieand Julius Muray”The Physicsof Micro/Nano-Fabrication”
2
Spot size <100 Åas compared to photolithography (5000 Å).High speed and precision of e-beam deflection and modulation.Good control over the energy and dose delivered to resist.
E-Beam Lithography:Some Pros and Cons
Either scanning the beam by controlling its deflection from acomputer (sequential exposure) or electron imaging through aspecial mask (parallel exposure).Exposure in the spot takes ~10
-7
s, but there are ~10
10
spotsthat are typically required
→ 
high speed is important.10
10
spots requires also a precision of ~1ppm along each ofthe axis
→ 
strict demands on DA converters, max areas of up to1 mm
2
can be exposed by direct beam deflection.Also, a mechanical table is used to move the beam alonglarger distances.
(Then, alignment is made for each table position, either by checking for registration marks, oruse laser interferometers to precisely measure the table movement.)
 
2
3
Types of E-Beam Machines
Scanning systemsSingle beamsystemMultiple beamsystemVectorRasterVectorRaster
Hybrid systemsShaped beamCharacter projectionParallel exposuresystemsPhotocathodeprojectione-ImageprojectionFly’s eye lensprojection
pattern information is stored in maskshigh throughputless expensivepattern information in computer’s memorydistortion-, and proximity corrections are neededexpensive but flexibleTwo distinct uses of e-beam lithography:1.direct exposure of resist for device fabrication2.mask fabrication for subsequent optical lithography
4
Raster-vsVector Control
The raster-scan systems meticulously cover the area ofpattern,
switching the e-beam on and off as required 
bythe patterns shapeThe vector-control systems deflect the beam to followpaths dictated by the pattern. “Go to that address and doexposure there”.Analogy:Compare the bitmap-and vector formats fordigital-image files ( i.e. “*.bmp”vs“*.eps”)
 
3
5
Typical Schematics
A heated source giving rise tothermionic emission of electrons
is similar to electron microscopy
6
Electron Beam
In general, our ability to view or fabricate smallobjects depends on availability of stronglyfocused particle beams.Diffraction limits the spot size. The smaller thewavelength, the smaller the spot.
Particleenergy
0
(eV)Particle:2.9e-3
0.12
1.2410
4
9.1e-4
0.037
0.12410
5
2.8e-4
8.7e-3
0.01210
6
9.1e-32.9e-20.0910.29protons
0.391.233.8912.3electrons
12.4124124012400photons10
3
10
2
101
λ 
=1240/
0
(photons);
λ 
=12.3/(
0
+1e-6
02
)
0.5
(electrons);
λ 
=0.28/
00.5
(protons).Particlewavelength(Å) at variousenergies

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