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Honours Lecture 5 2008

Honours Lecture 5 2008

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Published by kaushik4208

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: kaushik4208 on May 31, 2009
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10/18/2011

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Forming Nanostructuresby the
Top-Down 
Approach
Photolithography and Microelectronics: LimitationsNanolithography: Electron Beam LithographyScanning Near-Field PhotolithographySoft Lithography: Chemically Printing on SurfacesScanning Probe Microscopies: Writing on Surfaces
 
 –
Learning Objectives Part 3
Top-Down Approach 
CHM4M2 
 – Nanoscale Science –After completing PART 3 of this course you should have an understanding of, and be able to demonstrate, thefollowing terms, ideas and methods.(i) Appreciate what is meant by
top-down 
and
bottom-up 
wrt the fabrication of nanostructures(ii) Understand the process of photolithography as applied to the microelectronics industry.(iii) Understand the limits of photolithography
.
(iv) Understand the process of e-beam lithography.(v) Understand the process on scanning near field optical lithography(vi) Understand the process of dip-pen nanolithography.(vii) Understand the process of nanooxidation on surfaces, induced by SPMs.(viii) Understand that SPMs can not only image, but draw and move particles on surfaces.
 
What is Meant by Top-Down?
We discussed in Part 2 the
Bottom-Up 
approach to nanostructures: Wherebyatoms were assembled into molecules, and molecules into nanostructures (i)by covalent bonds (dendrimers), and (ii) by noncovalent bonds(supramolecules).The alternative approach is from the Top-Down: 6 x 10
23
atoms of silicon (28grams) can be continually divided until only two remain!ThisTop-Downapproach has been enormously successful, and has been themainstay of the microelectronics industry for the last forty years…but they arefar from reaching 2 atomsUsing a process calledphotolithography, feature sizes of less than 200 nm(about 1000 silicon atoms laid side by side) are routinely made on siliconchips. Additionally, using this technology 3 billion transistors per second aremade in the US alone!Lithography Definition: A method of printing from a metal or a stone surfaceon which the printing areas are not raised but made ink-receptive as opposedto ink-repellent.

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