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Photo Lithography AY

Photo Lithography AY

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Published by kaushik4208

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: kaushik4208 on May 31, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/15/2011

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2005-04-07A. Yurgens1
Photolithography (PL)
is an optical means fortransferringpatterns onto a wafer
History
From latin: “photos=light; “lithos”=stone; “graphein”=writingJoseph NicephoreNiepce, 1826, first photolithography; engraving ofCardinal d’Amboise. Resolution ~1 mm.More than 100 years later –another try: Louis Minsk developed thesynthetic photosensitive polymer, polyvinylcinnamate, the firstnegative photoresist.In 1960’s –large amounts of transistors
Engraving, 1650
chemical treatment of alight sensitive form ofasphalt, called bitumen ofJudea
Copy of the EngravingHeliograph, 1826
http://www.hccs.cc.tx.us/JWoest/Research/photography.html
 
2005-04-07A. Yurgens2
Overview of the PL Process
Surface PreparationSpin CoatingPre-Bake (Soft Bake)AlignmentExposureDevelopmentPost-Bake (Hard Bake)Processing (thin-film deposition or etching, etc.)Photoresist StrippingPost Processing Cleaning (Ashing)
Surface Cleaning
Typical “dirt”that must be removed before applying photoresist: 
dust, dandruff etc.abrasive particles from lapping 1-100 micronfibers from wipersresidues from previous photolithographybacteria 1-20 micron (wash hands)also: –solvent residue –water residue(moisture) –photoresist or developer residue –oil (vacuum pumps) –silicone (vacuum grease)
 
2005-04-07A. Yurgens3
Surface Cleaning
Standard degrease:
 –2-5 min. soak in acetone with ultrasonic agitation –2-5 min. soak in methanol with ultrasonic agitation –2-5 min. soak in DI water with ultrasonic agitation –30 sec. rinse in DI water –spin-rinse dry for wafers; –nitrogen blow-off dry for small substrates
Organic residues:
oxygen plasma (strip 2-3 min 200-300 W)
Hazards:
 –acetone is flammable –methanol is toxic by skin adsorption
Photoresist Adhesion
Resist adhesion factors:
moisture content on surfacewetting characteristics of resistdelay in exposure after the pre-bakeresist chemistrysurface smoothnessstress from coating processsurface contaminationTo improve adhesion photoresist
primers 
are used.

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