String Theory - Abstract
SPH4U0-C ISU Project
By Michael Mohamed
This essay serves as an introduction into string theory. This is meant to be as non-mathematicaland simplistic as possible for the reader. Some topics discussed in the essay include: general relativity,quantum mechanics, strings, multiple dimensions, Calabi-Yau manifolds, duality, supersymmetry, branes,M-theory, black holes, and the spacetime continuum. Some of the concepts are only touched on brieflyand described primarily in order to either explain their fundamental connection to string theory ordemonstrate a string theory based approach to these topics.
Introduction: A New Kind of Physical Theory
This section serves as an introduction and primer to the reader concerning the subject matter. Itintroduces the three main ideas described in the following paragraphs concerning general relativity andquantum mechanics, string theory and multiple dimensions, the various applications of string basedtheories and concluding with a prospective outlook on the future of physics research.
The Quantum Relativistic Mess
A description is given to general relativity and quantum mechanics, both of which are used asstandard theories in modern physics. An explanation is given as to why the two theories are mutuallyincompatible. The need for a new theory is emphasized, leading into the introduction of string theory.
Strings, Multiple Dimensions, and Supersymmetry
This section introduces the concept of a string as the fundamental building block of all matter. Thisthen leads into a description of multiple dimensions in the shape of a Calabi-Yau manifold. The conceptof supersymmetry and duality in string theory is introduced. These concepts are then used to explain theresolution of the aforementioned problems in the current physical theories.
M-Theory: The Theory of Everything?
This theory serves to delve deeper into cutting-edge physics research through the introduction of M-theory. M-theory is shown to have many wide reaching implications in physics theories in its ability tounify various problems in the current theory which may become sensible through the use of multidimensional branes. Some of these topics include: black holes, the big bang and flop transitionwrapping.
Conclusion: The Future of Physics
This section attempts to summarize all of the various concepts introduced and summarize them assimply as possible. Some speculation is given on possible physical developments in the future andproblems in physics that may be resolved through their utilization.