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String Theory Essay

String Theory Essay

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Published by Michael Mohamed

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Published by: Michael Mohamed on Jun 01, 2009
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String Theory
Matter–Energy Interface ISU Project
Michael MohamedSPH4U0-CG. LeBretonJune 1
st
, 2009
 
String Theory - Abstract
SPH4U0-C ISU Project
By Michael Mohamed
This essay serves as an introduction into string theory. This is meant to be as non-mathematicaland simplistic as possible for the reader. Some topics discussed in the essay include: general relativity,quantum mechanics, strings, multiple dimensions, Calabi-Yau manifolds, duality, supersymmetry, branes,M-theory, black holes, and the spacetime continuum. Some of the concepts are only touched on brieflyand described primarily in order to either explain their fundamental connection to string theory ordemonstrate a string theory based approach to these topics.
1.
 
Introduction: A New Kind of Physical Theory
This section serves as an introduction and primer to the reader concerning the subject matter. Itintroduces the three main ideas described in the following paragraphs concerning general relativity andquantum mechanics, string theory and multiple dimensions, the various applications of string basedtheories and concluding with a prospective outlook on the future of physics research.
 
2.
 
The Quantum Relativistic Mess
A description is given to general relativity and quantum mechanics, both of which are used asstandard theories in modern physics. An explanation is given as to why the two theories are mutuallyincompatible. The need for a new theory is emphasized, leading into the introduction of string theory.
 
3.
 
Strings, Multiple Dimensions, and Supersymmetry
This section introduces the concept of a string as the fundamental building block of all matter. Thisthen leads into a description of multiple dimensions in the shape of a Calabi-Yau manifold. The conceptof supersymmetry and duality in string theory is introduced. These concepts are then used to explain theresolution of the aforementioned problems in the current physical theories.
4.
 
M-Theory: The Theory of Everything?
This theory serves to delve deeper into cutting-edge physics research through the introduction of M-theory. M-theory is shown to have many wide reaching implications in physics theories in its ability tounify various problems in the current theory which may become sensible through the use of multidimensional branes. Some of these topics include: black holes, the big bang and flop transitionwrapping.
5.
 
Conclusion: The Future of Physics
This section attempts to summarize all of the various concepts introduced and summarize them assimply as possible. Some speculation is given on possible physical developments in the future andproblems in physics that may be resolved through their utilization.
 
String Theory
Essay AssignmentSPH4U0-C ISU Project
By Michael Mohamed
6.
 
Introduction: A New Kind of Physical Theory
Throughout the history of science various paradigm shifts have taken place which have radicallyaltered both the scientific tools with which mankind has to observe and predict the world it lives in. Thetheory of gravity was changed radically from the former Newtonian model in the early 1900s by thework of Albert Einstein in his theory of general relativity. At this time there were huge breakthroughs inthe field of quantum mechanics by scientists such as Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödingerand Richard Feynman among countless others
[8]
. What was once considered the standard model wasfound inadequate over time and scientists struggled to rethink their current understanding of theuniverse in the search for a theory that might unite all physical phenomena together. In modern times,this goal has still gone unmet. However, theoretical scientific research has lead to the development of anew theory that could overtake the current standard model; this essay will attempt to describe this newcandidate referred to as String Theory. The basic concepts of String Theory will be described first of allthrough the current inadequacy of modern physical theories, following with the concept of strings,multiple dimensions and supersymmetry, and concluding with the description of M-theory and itscritical applications in physics problems, some of which still remain unsolved today.
7.
 
The Quantum Relativistic Mess
The current standard model of physics has a fundamental flaw: it is actually two separate theories,the theory of General Relativity and the theory of Quantum Mechanics. Both theories provide accurateand sensible predictions when applied to their respective extremities; General Relativity works bestwhen predicting the phenomena associated with gargantuan celestial bodies, whereas QuantumMechanics works best when predicting the phenomena associated with extremely small bodies such asprotons, electrons, quarks and photons
[3][8]
. While both theories are accurate when used correctly, anyattempt to use both theories simultaneous in attempting to understand certain phenomena cause thetheories to break down. This might result in physically impossible measurements such as zeros thatshould not occur as well as infinities that should not appear
[5]
.The theory of General Relativity utilizes the concept of a smooth and curved three dimensionalsurface on which all bodies of mass rest; gravity in then understood to come as a result of large massesbending space-time and causing smaller masses to fall toward or around them. One of the mostimportant features of the relativity is the perfect smoothness the space-time continuum is described ashaving, which as is later shown, becomes the undoing of the theory itself. The theory of QuantumMechanics states that for small particles such as electrons and photons, no deterministic predicationscan be made about any property of the particles action; the best approximation then is to utilize various

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