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Bio Diesel

Bio Diesel

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Published by: ramchinna on Jun 01, 2009
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09/22/2012

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Biodiesel is one of the available alternative fuels in the market. It isderived from biomass, which is one of the sources of renewable energy.Coconut oil is one of the sources of biodiesel and of all the other sources, itwould be best in tropical countries such as here in the Philippines wherecoconut tree is one the primary native crops.The blending of coco-biodiesel in diesel fuel became mandatory whenthe Biofuels Act of 2006 (also known as Republic Act 9367) was signed intolaw by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 2007. The said actwas initiated by Senator Mirriam Defensor-Santiago, who also authored andsponsored the Biofuels Law. The said law requires bioethanol content of allgasoline sold in the country to be increased to at least ten percent (10%) bythe fourth year of the law’s effectivity. On the other hand, diesel fuels sold inthe country will be required to have at least one percent (1%) blend of biofuelupon the effectivity of the law, which will be later increased up to two percent(2%) after the second year.
1.1 OBJECTIVES
This thesis aims to provide the readers with a better understanding of one of the latest innovations in the fuel industry, which is the development of coco-biodiesel. It intends to inform people with the current issues regarding
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the improvements of coco-biodiesel in and outside the country. It is alsowritten to promote environmental concerns such as global warming andhealth issues such as the increasing cases of respiratory diseases worldwide.This paper illustrates the advantageous effects of coco-biodiesel in engineperformance of diesel vehicles. Finally, it presents the impact of the usage of coco-biodiesel in the Philippine economy.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The study of coco-biodiesel fuel is very timely because of arisingproblems such as the rising cost of fuel in the market, global warmingphenomenon, and health problems such as respiratory diseases caused bythe harmful byproducts of burning petroleum-based fuels. The Philippinesspends about 280 billion pesos on oil importation. If at least one percent (1%)blend of coco-biodiesel will be added, diesel consumption will be reduced by540 million liters per year. Another problem concerning the use of diesel isthe deteriorating effects of the increased amount of Greenhouse Gases in theatmosphere. This is due to the high emission of carbon dioxide coming fromincomplete combustion of diesel fuel in vehicles. Last of all, the emission of pollutants such as nitrogen oxide caused also by incomplete combustion of diesel fuel is one of the leading contributors of smog and can trigger seriousrespiratory problems.
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1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study will use data and will compare theories gathered fromdifferent sources (in and outside the Philippines), but will only consider thebiodiesel economics within the country. This paper is basically a combinationof different studies about biodiesel done to help the readers become aware of this present issue in a readily compiled paper. No new experiments havebeen conducted to prove any theory or hypothesis regarding the said topic.
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.
Alcohol
is anyorganic compoundin which ahydroxyl group(
) isbound to acarbonatom of analkylor substituted alkyl group.
2.
Aromaticity
is a chemical property in which aconjugatedring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs,or empty orbitals exhibit astabilization stronger thanwould be expected by thestabilization of conjugation alone. It can also be considered amanifestation of cyclicdelocalizationand of resonance 
3.
Biodiesel
refers to adiesel-equivalent, processed fuel derived frombiological sources (such asvegetable oils), which can be used in
unmodified 
 diesel-enginedvehicles. It is thus distinguished from thestraight vegetable oils(SVO) or waste vegetable oils(WVO) used as fuels in some
modified 
diesel vehicles.
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Figure 1Molecular Structure of Aromatics

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