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Kaedah Penanaman Cili Fertigasi

Kaedah Penanaman Cili Fertigasi

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Published by hyecall
Menerangkan sedikit sebanyak berkaitan penanaman cili kaedah fertigasi, sesuai sebagai permulaan kecil - kecilan.
Menerangkan sedikit sebanyak berkaitan penanaman cili kaedah fertigasi, sesuai sebagai permulaan kecil - kecilan.

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Published by: hyecall on Jun 01, 2009
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ELSEVIER
ScientiaHorticulturae 61 (1995) 285-290
SCIENTIAHORTlCULTURR
Short Communication
Response of three sweet pepper cultivars to Biozymeunder unheated plastic house conditions
Sayed Fathey El-Sayed
Vegetable Crops Department, Faculty ofAgriculture, Cairo University,Cairo, Egypt
Accepted2 1 September 1994
Abstract
Two experiments were carried out in an unheated plastic house to study the response ofthree pepper
(Cupsicum annuum
L.
)
cultivars, i.e. ‘Blemont’, ‘Domino’ and ‘Atol’, to Bio-zyme, applied at 0, 1 and 2 ml 1-i at flower initiation followed by two sprays at an intervalof
21 days.
Biozyme is an extract of vegetable origin that contains, in ppm, 32.2 indole-acetic acid (WA), 32.2 GAS, 83.2 zeatin, 4900 Fe, 1200 Mn, 3000 B, 3700 Zn, 1400 Mgand 4400 S. Results indicated that ‘Blemont’ was the best cultivar regarding the numberof early and total fruits, weight of total yield, while cv. ‘Atol’ gave the highest values ofearly yield, average fruit weight, and ascorbic acid in fruits. Two millilitres of Biozymegave the best results with regard to height and weight of plants, number and weight of totalfruits, and ascorbic acid in fruits. However, the highest average of fruit weight was pro-duced by 1 ml Biozyme. Generally, Biozyme significantly increased early yield comparedwith untreated plants with no significant differences between the two concentrations used.
Keyworuk:
Biozyme;Cultivars;Pepper; Unheated plastichouse
1.
ntruductlon
In Egypt, sweet
pepper
(Capsicum annuum
L.
)
is grown in plastic houses forearly production during the period from December to April for export and con-sumption.
These plastic houses are simple and do not have environmental con-trol. Fluctuations in temperature and humidity are therefore large and frequentlyextend beyond the suitable range for plant growth and fruit set and development.The average minimum and maximum temperatures of 199
1
1992 and 1992- 1993measured in unheated plastic house were 9.8”C and 28.2”C in December, 7.7”Cand 24.7”C in January, 9.1 “C and 28.1 “C in March, respectively. It was previ-
03044238/95/$09.50 0 1995
ElsevierScienceB.V. All rights reservedSSDIO304-4238(94)00737-3
 
286 S.F. El-Sayed /Scientia Horticulturae 61 (1995) 285-290
ously proved that the optimal fruit set in pepper was obtained at 12- 16’ C (Coch-ran, 1936). Fruit development at low temperatures may be influenced by polleninfertility (Polowick and Sawhney, 1985 ). More recently, Olarewaju ( 1989) re-ported that almost all pepper fruits formed at 5 and 10°C were parthenocarpic,and were generally small and malformed.After Gustafson ( 1936) discovered that auxins were effective in fruit set oftomato, pepper, eggplant and okra, numerous compounds were tested on fruit setof pepper such as GA3 (Patil et al., 1985; Zayed et al., 1985; Siviero, 1989),GA3 +morphactin (Zayed et al., 1985) and microelements
(Kiss,
1979; El-Ab-deen and Metwally, 1982).The objective of the present work was to study effect of a biostimulant complexcontaining indoleacetic acid (WA), GA3, zeatin, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Mg and S on thevegetative growth and yield of three sweet pepper cultivars grown under un-heated plastic house conditions.2.
Materials and methods
Two experiments were carried out during the winter seasons of 199 1 and 1992in the plastic houses of the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, CairoUniversity, Egypt.Seeds of three sweet pepper hybrids, ‘Blemont’, ‘Domino’ (from Asgrow Co.,USA) and ‘Atol’ (from EZ Co., Holland) were sown in 84 Speedling trays on 16and 19 September 199 1 and 1992. The plants were transplanted on 11 and 16December 199 1 and 1992, on double rows 140 cm wide with a spacing of 50 cmbetween plants. This achieved a plant density of 2.5 plants mm2. The experimentswere arranged in a split-plot design in three replicates. The three pepper cultivarsrepresented the main plots, while the concentrations of Biozyme represented thesubplots. Biozyme, which was obtained from Bioenzymas (S.A. de C.V. Co.,Mexico), is an extract of vegetable origin that contains (in ppm) 32.2 IAA, 32.2GAS, 83.2 zeatin, 4900 Fe, 1200 Mn, 3000 B, 3700 Zn, 1400 Mg and 4400 S.Biozyme was applied as a foliar spray on plants three times during the floweringstages at 2 1 day intervals starting at flower initiation (65 days after transplant-ing). Biozyme was used at concentrations of 0, 1 and 2 ml 1-l distilled water.Triton B at 0.05% was used as a wetting agent for all treatments and control.Irrigation and nutrient supply was provided via a drip system. Fertigation, train-ing and pest control were followed as commonly practiced for pepper productionunder unheated plastic house conditions.Data were recorded on vegetative growth (height and fresh weight of plants)at the end of growing season, early yield m-’ (number and weight of fruits in thefirst three pickings), total yield me2as number and weight of fruits throughoutthe harvesting season (eight pickings), and chemical content of fruit at the fourthpicking (total soluble solids percentage using hand refractometer and ascorbicacid using the method described by the Association of Official Agricultural
 
S.F. El-Sayed /Scientia Horticulturae 61(1995) 285-290287
Chemists ( 1965 ).
All
data were statistically analyzed using combined analysis asdescribed by Snedecor and Cochran ( 1967).3.
Results and discussions3. I.
Vegetative growth
Data presented in Table 1 show that plants of cv. ‘Atol’ were significantly tallerthan those of ‘Blemont’ and ‘Domino’. A significant increase in plant height wasachieved using Biozyme at both concentrations. A significant increase was alsodetected in plant weight, but only by the higher concentration of Biozyme. Theseresults were expected since Biozyme is a complex of three growth stimulants (MA,GA3 and zeatin) which promote stem elongation by increasing rate of cell divi-sion and elongation (Weaver, 1972), and it contains microelements which have
Table 1Effect of Biozyme concentrations on some morphological characters and early yield of three peppercultivars under unheated plastic house conditions (combined data of two seasons)Cultivar Biozymecont.(ml 1-r)MorphologicalcharactersPlant Freshheightweight(cm)(g)Early yieldFruit FruitYieldnumber weight(kg(m-*) (IZ)rnm2)‘Blemont’ 0 79.90 674.7025.60 107.00 2.7371 92.50 675.0034.00 122.00 4.1492 100.00 795.9041.90 102.00 4.27Mean 90.80 715.2033.80 110.30 3.719‘Domino’ 0 79.90 662.0019.60 123.00 2.4041 90.00 675.0027.90 94.00 2.6152 105.00 775.0023.90 126.00 3.006Mean 91.70 704.2023.80 114.30 2.675‘At01 0 111.60 712.5024.20 142.00 3.4391 115.00 770.9031.40 144.00 4.5342 127.50 775.0029.40 136.00 4.00Mean 118.10 752.8028.40 140.70 3.99Mean 0
90.50 683.2023.20 124.00 2.86
1
99.20 706.7031.10 120.10 3.7662
110.80 782.0031.70 121.30 3.759LSD at 0.05% forcultivars (Cvs)Biozyme cont.Cvs
x
cont.7.2 NS2.2 3 0.3175.5 801.4 1.6 0.14614.1 NS2.2 2.6 0.243

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