o avoid diseases resulting from highpathogenic pressure in intensivebroiler and turkey housing systems,antibiotic growth promoters have beenused in many cases in the past. Sincethe EU-prohibition of these products, anincreasing interest exists for alternatives tosupport the microbiota in the intestine andfor the maintenance of animal health.
Therefore, the use of probiotics hasbeen established. Probiotics are livingcultures of non-pathogenic strains of bacteria and yeasts which are able toinfluence the microbiota in the intestineof the host animal in a positive way (Fuller 1989). Many of the known probiotics areunable to survive the techniques used inmodern feed production, for exampleheat exposure during the pelleting proc-ess of temperatures up to 90°C. Onepossibility to mitigate these problemsis the use of spore forming probiotics,especially probiotics of the genus
. Also, the compatibility with other feed additives, such as organic acids, coc-cidiostats and antibiotics for therapeuticpurposes, has to be considered ina practical situation.
Mode of action
Potential probiotics are charac- terized by the forming of naturalcolonies with a complex aerobicstructure, which has to be seenin connection with higher bacte-rial possibilities (Image 1). If bacteriaare kept in an artificial environment('domesticated'), they lose many of their natural capabilities. Thereforeprobiotics can be evaluated in asimple plate test concerning to their efficacy due to their aerobic form(Aguilar
. 2007).Different modes of action form the basisof the use of
in poultry feed,so the influence of improved productionparameters can be explained.
consumes oxygen in the digestive tract andproduces different enzymes like, for exam-ple, subtilisin and catalase. As a result, theenvironmental conditions for beneficial bac- teria, such as Lactobacilli, will improve. Thesebacteria colonize the gut wall and block the binding sites of pathogenic bacteria,a mechanism called competitive inhibition.Additionally, Lactobacilli produce lactic acid,which can affect pathogenic bacteria, suchas, Salmonella,
, Campylobacter andClostridiae (Hosoi
. 2000).Many trial results, concerning the reduc- tion of these pathogens have already beenpublished (Marutra
. 1996, Fritts
.2000, La Ragione and Woodward 2003).For example, Maruta
. (1996) describednot only fewer infected animals in a trial within total 18,000 broilers, but also a reducedconcentration of pathogenic bacteria in thefaeces of infected animals was observed(Table 1).In another research trial in broilers, areduction of campylobacter infection from
Improvingpoultry healthand productionefficiency withprobiotics
by Dr Detlef Kampf Orffa Additives, the Netherlands
Table 1: Influence of
) on the concentration of
and Salmonella (Maruta
C-3102(3x108 CFU/kg feed)
, log10/g faeces3.39±0.792.62±0.47*Cl. perfringens, % positive animals93%47%*Salmonella spp., log10/g faeces2.97±0.363.06±0.62Salmonella spp., % positive animals57%17%** P<0.01
C-3102 (compact andsingular colony form)
(incoherent colony form)
feed miinG echnooG20 | July - august 2013