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Modern Web Standards

Modern Web Standards

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Published by zainvi.sf6018
This article nicely covers modern web standards. It starts from HTML, XHTML, XML, CSS etc. and covers Atom and RSS as well. Salient feature is depth of coverage & bulleted presentation styl
This article nicely covers modern web standards. It starts from HTML, XHTML, XML, CSS etc. and covers Atom and RSS as well. Salient feature is depth of coverage & bulleted presentation styl

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Published by: zainvi.sf6018 on Jun 01, 2009
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11/30/2012

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 More notes available at: http://www.computer-science-notes.blogspot.com Source:
Ajax: The Definitive Guide, Anthony T. Holdener, III
 
Modern Web Standards
Introduction
Web standards enable the content of an application to be made available to a much widerrange of people and technologies at lower costs and faster development speeds.
Earlier the browser makers were to blame for difficulties in adopting web standards.
Browser Wars (4.0 Browsers)
: Nothing you did in one environment would work the same inanother.
Now developers are to blame for not adopting standards. Reasons:
o
Some developers are stuck with the mentality of the 1990s
o
"Helpful" What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) software that still generatescode geared for 4.0 browsers without any real thought to document structure, webstandards, separating structure from presentation, and so forth.
Now several standards bodies provide the formal standards and technical specifications
o
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - http://www.w3.org
o
European Computer Manufacturer's Association (ECMA) - http://www.ecma-international.org
o
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - http://www.ietf.org/.
Standards provided: XHTML, CSS, JavaScript, the DOM, XML, XSLT, RSS, and Atom.
Not only does Ajax use each standard, but also these standards are either the fundamental building blocks of Ajax or may be used in exciting ways with Ajax web applications.
XHTML (Extensible HyperText MarkUp Language) W3C Standard
XHTML --> HTML 4.0.1 as XML
Versions:
o
XHTML 1.0: January 26, 2000
o
XHTML 1.1: May 31, 2001
o
XHTML 1.2: August 1, 2002:Module-based XHTML Recommendation: You could add other modules orcomponents to create a new document type without breaking standards compliance(though it would break XHTML compliance)
o
XHTML 2.0: Working Draft
o
HTML forms --> XForms
o
HTML frames --> XFrames,
o
DOM Events --> XML EventsDevelopment taking advantage of this recommendation will most likely be gearedtoward more specialized audiences that have the ability to view such applications,and not the general public
Why not widely adopted?
o
"if it ain't broke, don't fix it" mentality
o
people just do not see the benefits of XML,
o
no budget to change sites that already exist and function adequately.
o
All deprecated features of HTML (presentation elements, framesets, etc.) were alsoremoved completely Slow Adoption: People wondering how to do things withoutusing frames and using CSS.
o
No backward-compatiblity with previous versions of XHTML 1.0 and HTML.
Potentials of XHTML
 
 
 More notes available at: http://www.computer-science-notes.blogspot.com Source:
Ajax: The Definitive Guide, Anthony T. Holdener, III
 
o
Development of new applications on the Web,
o
Use of those applications on different platforms such as mobile and wirelessdevicesMore information athttp://www.w3.org/MarkUp/ .
Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG)
Formed on June 4, 2004.
Mission: To develop specifications based on HTML and related technologies to ease thedeployment of interoperable Web Applications, with the intention of submitting the resultsto a standards organization."
Vision: Creating a single development environment on which web applications are built.Publishing technical specifications intended for implementation in what it calls "mass-market web browsers" such as Safari, Mozilla, and Opera.
Together with W3C working on HTML 5 (Currently draft).
HTML 5 abandons the strictness of XML that XHTML had adopted, and Focuses on addingnew features to HTML itself. Added elements include nav, article, aside, section, header,footer, mark, time, meter, progress, figure, dialog, datagrid, details, menu, command, andmore.
JavaScript ECMA Standard
Netscape Communications Corporation's implementation of ECMAScript
Now a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems,
Microsoft’s implementation ECMA standard is JScript.
Not to do with incompatibilities among web browsers which are actually due to differencesin DOM implementation rather than JavaScript or its subset, ECMAScript.
Versions:
o
Initial: December, 1995
o
JavaScript 1.5 <-- ECMA-262 Edition 3 standard.
o
JavaScript is 1.7: Latest version as of 2007
New features: Array extras, String generics, and extensions such as pop( ),push( ), shift( ), and unshift( ).
JavaScript technically does not comply with ECMA International standards.
o
Mozilla -JavaScript (closer to standards)
o
Internet Explorer -JScript, and
o
Opera and Safari - other ECMAScript implementations
o
 More information athttp://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm 
Document Object Model (DOM) W3C Standard
Levels:
o
Level 1
o
Level 2: Introduced modules to the specification:
November 13, 2000: The Core, View, Events, Style, and Traversal andRange
January 9, 2003: HTML module
o
Level 3: Greater functionality to work with XML-->Move towards AJAXThe
December 15, 2003: Validation module
April 7, 2004: Core and Load and Save modules
 
 
 More notes available at: http://www.computer-science-notes.blogspot.com Source:
Ajax: The Definitive Guide, Anthony T. Holdener, III
 
Not all of the modules for DOM Level 3 have become recommendations yet,and because of that they bear watching. Following are working group notes:
Abstract Schemas : since July 25, 2002;
Events: November 7, 2003 (though it was updated April 13, 2006);
XPath: since February 24, 2004; and
Requirements and Views and Formatting: since February 26, 2004.More Information athttp://www.w3.org/DOM/DOMTR.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) W3C Standard
Versions:
o
May 12, 1998: "Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 (CSS2) Recommendation"Most modern browsers support most of the CSS2 specifications, though thereare some issues with full browser support. However, all modern browsersshould fully support.CSS1
o
August 2, 2002: CSS2.1. Working snapshot of the current CSS support in webbrowsers than an actual recommendation.Browsers are working toward full implementation of the CSS2.1 standard mainlyso that when the newer Cascading Style Sheets Level 3 (CSS3) finally becomesa recommendation they will not be as far behind the times.
o
CSS3 has been under development since 2000:
Idea of modularity with its design.
Defines the styles needed for better control of paged media,positioning, and generated content, plus support for Scalable VectorGraphics (SVG) and Ruby--> Moving towards AJAXMore information athttp://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/ .
eXtensible Markup Language (XML) W3C Standard
General language for describing different kinds of data
One of the main data transportation agents used on the Web.
Versions:
o
XML 1.0: February 10, 1998, October 6, 2000, February 4, 2004.
o
XML 1.1: February 4, 2004
Gave consistency in character representations and relaxed names, allowable characters,and end-of-line representations.
Why XML?
o
It is self-documenting, meaning that the structure itself defines and describes thedata within it.
o
Because it is plain text, there are no restrictions on its use, an important point forthe free and open Web.
o
Both humans and machines can read it without altering the original structure anddata.
XML may not be the transportation mode of choice for many applications, but it may still bethe foundation for the data that is being used in those applications by way of syndicationfeeds.More information at:http://www.w3.org/XML/ .

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