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Table Of Contents

1.0 Vacuum Tubes, Amplification, History and Observations
1.1 Early History and Contributors
1.2 De Forest’s Contributions - Birth of Modern Electronics
1.3 An Incremental Improvement
1.4 Power Amplification
1.5 The Peak Years
1.6 The End of an Era?
1.7 Current State of the Art
1.10 Influence of the Psychedelic Sixties
1.11 Amplifier Modifications
1.12 Manufacturers Responded
1.13 Getting Along With Today's Vacuum Tubes
1.14 Further Thoughts, Modifications and Repairs
2.0 Biasing the Vacuum Tube
2.1 What Is Bias?
2.2 How to Bias A Triode
2.3 Amplifier Bias Adjustment
2.4 Tube Amplifier Designs Rarely Change
2.5 Matched Sets of Tubes
3.0 How Vacuum Tubes "Amplify"
3.1 Definition of Voltage Gain
3.2 Other Forms of Gain
3.3 Vacuum Tube Configurations
3.4 Common Cathode Configuration for Voltage Gain
4.0 Amplifier Functions
4.1 Important Performance Parameters
4.1.1 Noise
4.1.2 Noise figure
4.1.3 Gain
4.1.4 Output Power
4.1.5 Distortion
4.2 Individual Circuit Functions
4.2.1 Preamplifier
4.2.2 Equalization
4.2.3 Post Amplification
4.2.4 Phase Shifter/Power Divider
4.2.5 Power amplifier
4.2.6 Output Transformer
4.2.7 Load
5.0 Amplifier Specifications
5.1 Guitar Pickup Impedance and Signal Level
5.2 Amplifier Input Impedance
5.4 Noise Figure Considerations
5.4.1 Pragmatic Definitions of Noise Figure
6.0 Performance Estimates Using a Spreadsheet
7.0 Precautionary Information
8.0 Designing the Output Power Stage
8.1 The "Push-Pull" Output Stage or "Balanced" Amplifier
8.1.1 Why Are Balanced Amplifiers More Efficient?
8.2 Tubes, Transformers, Power Supply Voltage
8.3 Selecting Output Tubes
8.4 Estimating Plate Voltage and the Tube Data Sheet
8.5 Estimating Quiescent Bias Current
8.6 Quiescent Power Dissipation
8.7 Determining Grid Bias Voltage
8.8 Screen Grid Current
8.9 Estimating Output Impedance
8.10 Estimating Transformer Requirements
8.11 Re-checking Output Power
8.12 Output Stage Characteristics, Preliminary
8.13 More On Transformers
8.14 Input Drive Level, Estimate for Voltage Gain
8.15 Biasing Power Tubes, Screen Bias
8.16 Biasing the Power Tubes, Control Grid and Cathode
8.17 Biased Grid Configuration
8.18 Biased Cathode Configuration
8.19 Purpose and Selection of Cathode Capacitors
8.22 Blocking Capacitors
8.23 Graphical Estimates For Gain and Power
8.24 Output Stage Characteristics, Final
8.25 Reliability and Performance Implications of Vacuum Tube Biasing
8.26 Simple Forms of Distortion and Possible Improvements
8.27 Negative Feedback
9.0 Designing Triode Phase Splitters
9.1 Phase Splitter Without Gain
9.2 Dual-Triode Phase Splitter With Gain
9.3 Practical Example of Phase-Splitter + Power Amplifier
10.3 Post Ampifier
11.0 Designing the Preamplifier
11.1 Preamplifier Noise Figure Estimate
12.0 Designing the Power Supply
12.1 Power Supply Functions
12.2 Rectifier Configurations
12.3 Rectifier Circuits
12.4 Need For the "Bleeder" Resistor
12.5 Designing a Negative Supply For Grid Bias
12.6 Hum Reduction and Decoupling
12.7 Hum Issues Related to Parts Layout
12.7.1 The Amplifier Schematic
12.7.2 Stray Coupling
12.7.3 An Example of a Successful Layout
12.7.4 Proximity and Orientation of the Transformers
12.8 Testing the Power Supply Circuit
13.0 Completed Guitar Amplifier Circuit
13.1 Test Strategies
13.2 Problem Solving
14.0 Fidelity Considerations
14.1 Compression, Single-Tone Distortion
14.2 Harmonics in Push-Pull Output Stage
14.3 Transient Responses
14.4 Multi-Tone Distortion
14.5 Noise and Hum Resulting From Excess Gain
14.5.1 Quiescent Noise (No Input Signal)
15.0 Design and Parts for Specific Performance Goals
15.1 Bright, Clean, Minimally Distorted Sound
15.2 Jazz, Standards, Clean Rhythm
15.3 Distortion
15.4 Bass
16.0 Versatility of the Beam Power Tube Screen Grid
16.1 Adjusting Imax By Varying Screen Bias
16.2 Provision for Variable Screen Grid Bias
16.3 Accommodating Existing Transformers
16.4 Obtaining Specific Imax Values
17.0 Using Beam Power Tubes As Triodes
18.0 Hybrid Configurations (Solid State + Vacuum Tubes)
18.1 Solid State Front End Vacuum Tube Power Amplifier
18.2 Vacuum Tube Front End, Solid State Power Amplifier
18.3 Tremolo Circuits
18.4 Reverberation Circuits
18.5 Building a Vacuum Tube Preamplifier
19.0 Modifying Amplifiers
19.1 Making A Practical Amplifier From the Fender "Champ"
19.2 Adding "Line Output" or "Preamplifier Output"
19.3 Reducing the Power of Large Amplifiers to a Practical Level
19.4 Eliminating the Need for Matched Output Tubes
19.5 Replacing Tube Rectifier With Solid-State Rectifier
19.6 Tube Substitution
20.2.1 Regulated Adjustable Plate Supply
20.2.2 Unregulated Adjustable Plate Supply
20.3 Signal Generator
20.5 Pulse Testing
20.6 Virtual Signal Generator
20.7 Virtual Spectrum Analyzer
20.8 Virtual Oscilloscope
20.9 Universal "Breadboard"
21.0 Amplifier Cabinets and Chassis
21.1 The Enclosure or Cabinet
21.2 Making Finger Joints
21.3 The Amplifier Chassis
22.0 Using Spreadsheets, from Concept to Design
22.1 The Starting Point
22.2 Power Supply Comments
22.2.1 Using the Power Supply Spreadsheet
22.3 The Output Stage
22.4 The Overall Amplifier Block Diagram
22.5 Decoupling Power Supply "Hum"
22.6 What's Left?
22.6.1 Revisiting the Phase-Splitter with Voltage Gain
22.6.2 Increasing Preamplifier and Post-amplifier Gain
22.6.3 Preamplifier/Post-amplifier Gain Distribution
22.6.4 Deciding on Gain Distribution
22.6.5 Putting It All Together
23.0 Appendix: Abbreviations and Relationships
24.0 Appendix: Setting Up A Guitar
24.1 Measuring String Clearance/Relief
24.2 Guitar Adjustments
24.2.1 Nut Adjustment
24.2.2 Baseline Configuration
24.2.3 Bridge Adjustment
24.2.4 Truss Rod Adjustment
24.2.5 Intonation Adjustment
25.0 Appendix: Comparing Loudspeakers Using SPL Data
26.0 Appendix: Inexpensive H-V Power Supply
27.0 Appendix: Audio Impedance, A Small-Signal Overview
27.1 Attenuation From Impedance Mismatch
27.2 Frequency Limitations Resulting From Impedance Mismatch
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Designing Vacuum Tube Amplifiers - ( by Charles Couch; 2009 )

Designing Vacuum Tube Amplifiers - ( by Charles Couch; 2009 )

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Published by kimbalsummers801
Tube Amplifier Design
Tube Amplifier Design

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Published by: kimbalsummers801 on Aug 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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