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Steganography and Random Grids

Steganography and Random Grids

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Published by AIRCC - IJNSA
Steganography and Random Grids
Steganography and Random Grids

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Published by: AIRCC - IJNSA on Aug 14, 2013
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International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.5, No.4, July 2013DOI : 10.5121/ijnsa.2013.5413163
HYBRIDIZATION OF DCT BASEDSTEGANOGRAPHY AND RANDOM GRIDS
PratarshiSaha
1
, SandeepGurung
2
andKunalKrishanuGhose
3
1,2
Department of Computer Science & Engineering,Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majhitar, Sikkim, India
1
2
3
QualComm, Sandiego, CA, USA
3
 A
 BSTRACT 
With the increasing popularity of information technology in communication network, security has becomean inseparable but vital issue for providing for confidentiality, data security, entity authentication and dataorigin authentication.Steganography is the scheme of hiding datainto a cover mediato provideconfidentiality and secrecy without risking suspicion of an intruder. Visual cryptography is a new techniquewhich provides information security using simple algorithm unlike the complex, computationally intensivealgorithms used in other techniques like traditional cryptography. This technique allows visual informationto be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by the Human Visual System (HVS),without any complex cryptographic algorithms. To provide a better secured system that ensures high datacapacity and information security, a multilevel security system can be thought for which can be built byincorporating the principles of steganography and visual cryptography.
 K 
 EYWORDS
 Data Security,DCT basedSteganography, Random Grids, Visual Cryptography, Hybrid 
1.I
NTRODUCTION
In the advent of booming communication technology, the needs for information sharing andtransfer have increased exponentially. The threat of an intruder accessing secret information hasbeen an ever existing concern for the data communication inthepublic domain. Cryptographyand Steganography are the most widely used techniques to overcome these threats.Cryptography involves converting a message text into an unreadable cipher. On the other hand,Steganography embeds message into a cover media and hides itsexistence.A digital image isconsidered as the carrier in these techniques.Both these techniques provide somelevel ofsecurityof data.However, neither of them alone is secure enough for sharing information over anunsecure communication channel and is vulnerable to intruder attacks. Although these techniquesare often combined together to achieve higher levels of security there still is a need of a highlysecured system to transfer information over any communication media minimizing the threat of intrusion.Visual cryptography (VC) is a powerful technique that combines the notions of ciphers and secretsharing in cryptography with that of graphics. VC takes a binary image (the secret) and divides itinto two or more pieces known as shares. When the shares are printed on transparencies and thensuperimposed, the secret can be recovered. No computer participation is required, thus
 
International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.5, No.4, July 2013164
demonstrating one of the distinguishing features of VC. VC is a unique technique in the sense thatthe encrypted message can be decrypted directly by the human visual system (HVS). It focuseson solving the problem of secret sharing. A secret sharing scheme suggested by Naor and
Shamir’s [2]
enables distribution of a secret amongst
n
parties, such that only predefinedauthorized sets will be able to reconstruct the secret. Ina
out of 
n
secret sharing problem
n
transparencies are generated and it requires a minimum of 
shares to retrieve the original image(message). The image remains hidden if fewer than
transparencies are stacked together. Eachpixel appears within
n
modified versions known as shares. The shares are a collection of 
m
black and white sub-pixels arranged closely together.An example of the traditional visual cryptography[4] is given in Figure 1.Random Grids extends the solution to the secret sharing problem by implementing a collection of 2-D transparent and opaque pixels arranged randomly which reveals the secret to the HumanVisual System (HVS) when being superimposed. Unlike other visual cryptography approaches,random grid does not need the basis matrices to encode the shares.Pixel expansion is disallowedwhich isthereforea great advantage of using Random Grids. Also, the sizes of secret image andthe shares areidentical to each other.Steganography[3]is an important sub division of informationhiding.In the frequency domaingroup the frequency coefficients of the images is derived and is used to embed the messages withthem. These hiding methods overcome the robustness and imperceptibility problem found in thespatial domain.
Figure 1: Theresult of traditional visual cryptography scheme.
Thus to increase the security of the information system ahybrid idea of combining steganographyand visual cryptography together is suggested. It would offer us a multilevel security trying toincorporatethe best characteristics features of each of the techniques.
2.R
ANDOM
G
RIDS
Random grid consists of a transparency comprising of transparent and opaque pixels arrangedrandomly which is designed that when being superimposed, it reveals the secret to the HumanVisual System (HVS) withoutthehelp of any computational parameters. A random grid [6] canalso be defined as a transparency comprising a two-dimensional array of pixels. Every pixel iseither transparent or opaque. Transmission of light throughthese chosen pixels is random.Opaque pixels block out light whereas transparent pixels allow light to pass through.The number of opaque pixels where
O
denotes opaque is equal to P(
O
)=1/2; similarly the numberof transparent pixels where
Tr 
denotes transparent is equal to P(
Tr 
) = 1/2. Thus the average light
transmission of a random grid is also ½. If we assume ‘
 R
’ to be the random grid then
(
 R) =
½.
For a certain pixel ‘
’ in random grid R the probability of r to be transparent is equal to that of r 
being opaque therefore:P( r=0 ) = P( r=1) =1/2; where 0 denotes opaque and 1 denotes transparent.
Probability of light transmission of a random pixel ‘
’ in random grid
 R
’ i.e
equal to
(
) =1/2.
 
International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.5, No.4, July 2013165
Superimposing of two random grids pixel by pixel is denoted by the generalized OR
operation
,therefore it is quite clear that R
R is same as R therefore
( R
R ) =
( r
r ) = 1/2; foreach pixel r in R.Table 1 below for gives us a brief idea of the stacking of random pixels r
1
andr
2.
Table 1 : Stacking of Random Pixels r
1
andr
2
r
1
r
2
r
1
r
2
000011101111
From the above probability table we can deduce that the probability of transparency of therandom pixel is 1/4i.e., the average light transmission of the random grids(R
1
and R
2
) or (r
1
andr
2
) is 1/4.
2.1 Random Grid Encryption Algorithms for Binary Images
Given are three different algorithms proposed by Kafri and Keren [5] to accomplish theencryption for the binary images. Given a secret binary image
 B
, these algorithms as followsproduce two random grids
 R
1 and
 R
2 such that they leak no information of 
 B
individually, yetthey reveal
 B
in our visual system when superimposed.Note that random_pixels (0, 1) is a function that returns a binary 0 or 1 to represent a transparentor opaque pixel, respectively, by a coin coin-flip procedure andR
1
[i, j] denotes the inverse of R
1
[i, j].Here the initial grid (first) is a combination of random collections of ones and zeros. Thesecond grid is created using the original image (secret)as a referenceusing the algorithms givenbelow.Algorithm 1: Generation of random grids by inverting the pixels inthecorresponding (second)grid for an occurrence of ablack pixel in the original image.Algorithm 2: Encryption of binary image using random grids by inserting random pixelinthesecond random grid foranoccurrence of ablack pixel in original image.Algorithm 3: Generation of grids by inverting pixels in eachof thegridsfor an occurrence of ablack pixel in the original image andalsosubstituting random pixels in one of the gridsfor anoccurrence of awhite pixel in the original image.Algorithm 4:Thegray-scale imagesare converted into its half toned version and then any one of the algorithms discussed above is used to generate therandom grids.Algorithm 1
 – 
3:Encryption of Binary images by Random Grids.Function name: Encryption(Image)Input: A w × h binary image B where B[i, j]
{0, 1}(white or black), 1
≤ i ≤ w and 1 j ≤ h
Output: Two shares of random grids R
1
and R
2
whichreveal G when superimposed whereR
[i, j]
B,1
≤ i ≤ w and 1 ≤ j ≤ h and k 
{1, 2}

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