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naserousman problem and prospects of education in Aweday town in eastern hararge it uploaded at june 24,2009
naserousman problem and prospects of education in Aweday town in eastern hararge it uploaded at june 24,2009

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Published by: hundee on Jun 02, 2009
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09/15/2012

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CHAPTER ONE1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study
Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as far back as the introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia during Ezana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of Europeanstyle was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16th century. This attempt was not continueddue to the outstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperor Susinyos. Toward the end of the 19th century, several factors accentuated the need for modern education. The establishment of strong central government and permanent urban seats of modern development of modern sector economy like manufacturing activities, establishment of foreign embassies of Adwa, are, amongothers, the main factors that have contributed for the development of modern education inEthiopia. Modern education has started at the beginning of the 20th century and officiallycommenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1
st
School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education,2004),Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that are institutionallyseparate:-1. Formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academic and technical and training at primary, secondary and tertiary level; and2. Non-formal education which includes:-Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact for youth and adults. Between 1962 and1994 the general education in Ethiopia divided into three these are:-
 primary school (grade1-6)
 junior secondary school (grade7-8)
senior secondary school (grade9-12)Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it now cons in 1994 revised the structureand modify the previous system of education so after 1994 consists of primary education (grade1-8) which also consists of first cycle (grade 1-4) which aims at achieving the functional literacyand the second cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for further education, general secondaryeducation and training, and second cycles of the secondary education (grade11-12), that preparesstudent for higher education.1
 
1
.1.1. Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia.
 Attempts to formulate the education sector policies during imperial regime were limited to a proclamation (1943 and 1948) which deals with the organization and duties and responsibilitiesof the ministry of education and its duties. It was made to adapt the Ethiopian education to theneeds of the country and expands the coverage of the activities in the provision of special trainingfor the sector and education system. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004),
1.1.2. Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia
.Education directly improves the productivity and rates of return and earnings of people. Inaddition to this, education has or wide range of indirect effects, which instigate positive changesin peoples attitudes toward work and society. It make easier to learn new skills throughout their lives and hence facilitate their participation in modern economies and societies. It also importantfactor which affects the health and life expectancy of individuals, because if equips them with theknowledge and the means to present control and direct disease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004)Primary school enrollment increased from about 957,300 in 1974/75 to nearly 2,450,000 in1985/86. There were still variations among regions in the number of students enrolled and adisparity in the enrollment of boys and girls. Nevertheless, while the enrollment of boys morethan doubled, that of girls more than tripled. Urban areas had a higher ratio of children enrolledin schools, as well as a higher proportion of female students, compared with rural areas. (Ministryof Education, 2004)The number of junior secondary schools almost doubled, with fourfold increase in Gojam,Kefa, and Welega. Most junior secondary schools were attached to primary schools. The number of senior secondary schools almost doubled as well, with fourfold increase in Arsi, Bale, Gojam,Gonder, and Welo. The pre-Revolutionary distribution of schools had shown a concentration inthe urban areas of a few administrative regions. In 1974/75 about 55 percent of senior secondaryschools were in Eritrea and Shewa, including Addis Ababa. In 1985/86 the figure was down to 40 percent. Although there were significantly fewer girls enrolled at the secondary level, the proportion of females in the school system at all levels and in all regions increased from about 32 percent in 1974/75 to 39 percent in 1985/86. (Ministry of education, 2006)2
 
1.1.3. Education in Oromia Regional states
Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the country where bothformal and non-formal education do not reach the majority of the population. The school in theregions are unevenly distributed and mostly physically and materially and deteriorated. Thisdeterioration is due to cultural and other constraints there is a higher dropout rate at the lower level which mostly affects girls’ participation in the education of the region. (Finance andDevelopment Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Education system of Oromia regional state normallyconsists of formal and non-formal education.Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations, technical and vocationaleducations. The data that recorded in 2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations shows that,two teachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college (TTC), 38 technical andvocational education training (TVET), of which 36 and 2 are government and non-governmentcenters respectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and 4893 primary schools in theOromia regions. (Regional Education Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Education in Aweday town
1.1.3.1 Performance of education in oromia regional state
As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educational facilities stated in the previous section, tremendous efforts were made to improve access to education facilities over the past seven years (1987-1995 E.C). According to the available data in this regard the number of  primary schools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, the number of secondary schools hasalso increased from 108 to 164, which is a commendable achievement over a shorter period of time. This generally indicates that on an average the regional government has been constructingand putting in operation about 103 primary and 7 secondary schools each year. It is apparent fromthis, that the rate of increase in senior secondary schools facilities is by far significantly lower than that of primary schools affecting the quality of and access to secondary level of education.
1.1.3.2. Enrollment of education in oromia regional state
The analysis of the performance of primary education enrolment shows that there was anincrement over the past seven years from 21% (1987) to 66.7% in 1995. Generally, the primaryeducation enrolment rate was growing at an average rate of about 5.8% per annum. By and large,the current level of enrolment as well as the annual growth rate compared to the level of 1987 isencouraging. Nonetheless, the level of primary education participation has remained lowcompared to the achievements of some of the regional states (Tigray 77.6% and SNNP 67.5%).3

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