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Jun2009A Solved

Jun2009A Solved

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Published by: hj43us on Jun 02, 2009
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06/29/2010

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Computer Networks Exam, 2
nd
term
– June, 1
st
2009Name:Rules:
Short answers are appreciated. Each question scores 2%. Duration 2hours.1.Which two basic functions are performed by Network Layer?Routing and Forwarding2.What is the "best effort" service model? Is it used on the Internet?No delivery guarantees are provided. Yes, it's what IP uses.3.Do all applications require in-order delivery of data? Why?No, not all. Because it depends on the nature of the data (ie. time info)4.What is a virtual circuit? What type of service does it provide?It looks like a dedicated circuit. It is a connection-oriented service.5.Do all the packets of a TCP connection flow through the same sequence of routers on a datagram network? Why?Not necessarily. Each datagram might go though a different route.6.What does "the longest prefix match" rule mean? That when looking for a match, bits are checked from left to right and the rulewith more matching bits is selected for forwarding.7.What is the minimum header size (in bytes) of an IPv4 datagram?20 bytes8.We've received a datagram with header field
fragment_offset=300
. Whatdoes it mean?the datagram is a fragment. Its data start at 2400 offset (8*300).9.What happens to an IP datagram if the data payload is larger than thenetwork MTU?It has to be fragmented before being transmitted over the network.10.Is it possible to send two datagrams with similar headers but differentvalues on the
identifier 
header field? Why?No, if identifier changes so will header checksum11.What is the size of the smallest fragment if a
4000
 
bytes
long IPv4datagram is transmitted through a network where
MTU=512 bytes
?96 bytes12.What is the first subnet you obtain from network 158.42.50.0/24 when it issplit into four same-size subnets? What will be the new network mask forthat subnet?
 
158.42.50.0/26 and the mask is 255.255.255.19213.What type of ICMP message is sent when a datagram TTL reaches zero?What for?ICMP Time Exceeded to warn the sender about the problem (ie traceroute)14.What type of traffic sends a computer running
traceroute
command?[ARP] + [DNS] + (ICMP) + UDP; ARP and DNS are optional, ICMP is received15.What is the size in bits of an IPv6 address?128 bits16.How does IPv6 handle fragmentation?Fragmentation by routers is not allowed in IPv617.What information is needed at each node to perform the calculations of alink-state routing algorithm? The cost of all the links (aka link-state) is needed at each router18.On a Distance Vector routing algorithm, what are the
initial values
of thecost matrix
c(x,y)
?
c(x,y)=
a
if 
 x 
and
 y 
are connected by a link of cost
a
, otherwise
c(x,y)=
8
19.What is the result we obtain from running Dijkstra algorithm on a graph? The collection of the best routes from a node to the rest of the nodes20.What is the metric used by RIP protocol? The number of hops (each edge cost is one)21.What routing algorithm is used by OSPF protocol?OSPF uses a link-state algorithm22.How can you obtain your computer's forwarding table?
route
command (also
netstat -r
)23.What is the purpose of BGP protocol? To route traffic between autonomous systems (AS)24.What is broadcast routing? Name one algorithm for broadcast routing. To send (a copy of) a packet to all network nodes. Flooding can do that.25.A computer's address is 158.42.50.1/26, what is the broadcast address?158.42.50.6326.List three of the services offered by the Link Layer.Framing, Error Control, Flow Control27.What is a NIC? What does it do?
 
It's a network interface card. It offloads link (and physical) layer tasks frommain processor.28.Name three error detection codes.CRC, parity, Internet Checksum29.What is a point-to-point link?It's a link with two ends. For example one connecting a computer and a router.30.What is a multiple access protocol useful for? To allow several transmitters to transmit in an ordered way (so only onetransmission happens at a time)31.Why CSMA is said to be a random access protocol?Because any node may start transmitting anytime (as far as the channel isclear)32.Why CSMA can not avoid collisions?Because two or more nodes may start a transmission at the same moment,not having enough time to detect the other transmission before33.How can a token passing network detect the token is missing? The token can only be hold for a limited time. After a while the token shouldpass again, if not the token has been lost.34.How many bits do Ethernet addresses have?48 bits35.What does "MAC" stand for?Media Access Control36.What is the main purpose of ARP? To learn a computer's MAC address of which we know its IP address.37.Why when I am pinging www.upv.es from my home computer I cannot seethat server's MAC address in the output of 
arp -a
command?Because your traffic goes through your home router, so only its MAC addressin known and shown by arp -a command (definitely not www.upv.es's).38.What speeds are available for Ethernet networks?10 and 100 Mbps and 1 and 10 Gbps.39.What is the purpose of Ethernet preamble field? To help the receiver clock synchronize with the sender's.40.What is the name of the random access protocol used by Ethernet?CSMA/CD41.How bits are represented in Manchester encoding?

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