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P. 1
Math

# Math

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Published by Nishant Panigrahi

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Published by: Nishant Panigrahi on Aug 15, 2013
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Review of proof methods
1. Direct proof of P implies QYou start with the statement P, through steps which you can explain or justify with propositions/theorems,you arrive at the statement Q. Your proof should like this: Assume P.Fill in the details here justifying every stepThen Q.Therefore, P implies Q.One example is when you are proving A _ B. The statement isx 2 A =) x 2 BSo your proof should like this: Assume x 2 A.Fill in the details here justifying every stepThen x 2 B.Therefore, A _ B. Another example is the proving that a function f : A ! B is injective. The statement isf(x) = f(y) =) x = ySo your proof should like this: Assume f(x) = f(y).Fill in the details here justifying every stepThen x = y.Therefore f is injective.2. Proof of P implies Q by counterpositiveInstead of proving P implies Q you prove :Q implies :P.3. Proof of a statement PIf you are not given a starting point (the statement P is not an implication), you should _nd thestarting point yourself! You start with a statement which you can justify to be true.Example: To prove that x
2
+ 2x _
1 for any x _nd a starting point and _nish the proof below.a true statement because your reason/reference to why it is trueTherefore x
2
+ 2x _
1 for any x.4. Proof by contradictionTo prove a statement P, you assume P is false (or :P is true) and arrive at a contradiction. Acontradiction is a statement that is false. It might be something like 2 < 2. It might be a statementof the form Q ^ :Q. The proof of "The number p2 is not rational." from lecture looks like1 Assumep2 is a rational number.Then,p2 can be written as
pq
where p and q are integers which do not have a common factor.Then...See lecture notes for the steps in between.So p and q are both even contradicting the fact that they did not have a common factor so our assumption thatp2 is a rational number was wrong.Therefore,p2 is not rational.5. Proof of a 8 statementTo prove 8x P(x) you start with an arbitrary x and show that the statement P(x) is true. You cannotrestrict your x or impose conditions on it at any point in your proof.

6. Proof of a 9 statementTo prove 9x P(x) you _nd one x with the property P(x). You do not have to explain how you cameup with your x. You do need to show that it has the property P(x).7. Proof for a compound/messy statementIf you have a statement with more than one quanti_er, for example the continuity statement:8_ > 0 9_ > 0 (jx
aj < _ =) jf(x)
f(a)j < _)you break it apart. This is _rst of all a 8_ P(_) statement with P(_) being9_ > 0 (jx
aj < _ =) jf(x)
f(a)j < _) :You say "Let _ > 0" and then when you are trying to prove P(_), you realize it is a 9_ Q(_) statement.So you try to _nd one _ that works. Once you are able to _nd the _, you have an R =) S statement jx
aj < _ =) jf(x)
f(a)j < _:to prove. So you start with jx
aj < _ and try to get jf(x)
f(a)j < _. Another example is proving surjectivity for a function f : A ! B. The surjectivity de_nition is:8y 2 B 9x 2 A f(x) = y:So your proof should look like this:Let y 2 B be an arbitrary element.Let x = Find the x whose image will be y. You do not have to say how you found it.Then f(x) = ::Show steps, explain::: = y.Therefore, f is surjective.8. Disproving a statement To disprove a statement P, you prove its negation :P.Here is one very simple example. The stament is false so we will disprove. All real numbers are positive.8x 2 R x > 0 Same statement with a quanti_er and math notation9x 2 R x _ 0 Its negation, which is what we'll prove.0 is a real number and 0 _ 0. So 0 is a real number which is not positive. Therefore, the statementthat all real numbers are positive is false.29. Mathematical inductionTo show P(n) is true for all n 2 N you show(a) P(1) is true.(b) For any k 2 N if P(k) is true then P(k + 1) is true.10. Proof using Descent To show P(n) is true for all n 2 N you do a proof by contradiction of thestatement A = fn : P(n) is falseg = ;You assume it is not empty. Then, A is a subset of N so it has a least element. You get your contradiction by _nding a smaller element in A. We uses this for another proof of the fact thap2 isirrational. We also use it to show a number n has a unique representation in base q.11. Combinatorial proof This is in Chapter 5.This involves counting. When you want to prove an equality of expressions, you try to count the samething in two di_erent ways corresponding to the two sides of the equality. Since you are counting thesame thing, you conclude the two expressions are equal.
Exercises
1. Prove that if x
2
3x
4 < 0 then
1 < x < 4. Fill in the intermediate steps in the proof below. Makesure you justify every step even it is just to say algebra or calculation. Assume x
2
3x
4 < 0Fill in the details here.So,
1 < x < 4.Therefore, x
2
3x
4 < 0 implies
1 < x < 4.2. Prove that 9x 2 Z such that 2x
2
3x + 1 = 0.3. Prove that f : R ! R given by f(x) = x
3
+ 1 is injective.4. Prove that f : R ! R given by f(x) = x
3
+ 1 is surjective.

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