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Mole Concept

# Mole Concept

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Mole Concept
Mole Concept

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08/15/2013

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THE MOLE CONCEPT

Molecules and atoms are extremely small objects - both in size and mass. Consequently, working withthem in the laboratory requires a large collection of them. How large does this collection need to be? Astandard needs to be introduced. This standard is the "mole". The mole is based upon the carbon-12isotope. We ask the following question: How many carbon-12 atoms are needed to have a mass of exactly12 g. That number is NA - Avogadro's number. Thus, NA is defined by NA x (mass of carbon-12 atom) = 12 gCareful measurements yield a value for NA = 6.0221367x10^+23. This is an incredibly large number -almost a trillion trillion. For example, if we stack NA pennies on top of one another how tall would thestack be? The answer is it would be so tall that the stack of pennies could reach the sun and back almost500 million times!A convenient name is given when there is an Avogadro's number of objects - it is called a "mole". Thus inthe above example there was a
mole
of pennies.1 mole = NA objectsThe mole concept is no more complicated than the more familiar concept of a dozen : 1 dozen = 12objects. From the penny example above one might suspect that the mass of a mole of objects is huge.Well, that is true if we're considering a mole of pennies, however a mole of atoms or molecules is adifferent story. Recall that the atomic mass unit (amu) isdefinedas 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.Consequently we have the relation NA x 12 amu = 12 gThus, a mole of carbon-12 atoms has a mass of just 12 g. What about other atoms? In the periodic tablethe atomic mass of the elements is given. For example the atomic mass of magnesium is 24.305 amu. Thisis the average isotopic mass of naturally occurring magnesium. What is the molar mass of magnesium ingrams? From the equation above we get 1 amu = 1g/NA or 1 amu = 1.66054x10^-24 g. Thus, a mole of magnesium atoms has a mass of NA x 24.305 amu x (1.66054x10^-24 g/amu) = 24.305 g. A mole of magnesium atoms has a mass of 24.305 g. This example demonstrates that the atomic mass of magnesiumcan be interpreted in one of two ways: (1) the average mass of a single magnesium atom is 24.305 amu or (2) the average mass of a mole of magnesium atoms is 24.305 g;A similar conclusion follows for all of the other elements.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACID AND BASEAcid vs Base
Acid and base are chemistry terms which refer to different potentialities of chemical substances. An acid,in chemistry, is usually a liquid, that contains hydrogen and has a pH value of less than seven. Thehydroen can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. The pH value of a base is always more than 7 and itusually combines with an acid to form a salt. A pH value is a scale to define the acidity or alkalinity of asubstance.Acids and bases can also be combined to form water, salt water and ionic salts. Based on thisdifferentiation, acids are good conducturs of electricity as they have H+ ions while bases are not and moreslippery in texture. Bases contain OH-ions. Bases, while dissolving in water, release hydroxide ionswhich are one hydrogen and one oxygen atom each with a negative charge. On the other hand, acidsrelease only hydrogen ions.

An acid and base are of opposite polarities and therefore, they neutralize each other. Acid and bases reactwith other substances in a caustic manner. Also, when it comes to chemical interaction, acids function as proton donators while bases function as proton acceptors.Both acids and bases may be classified as weak or strong. In the case of weak acids and bases, theconjugate result is strong but the weak acid or base does not dissociate properly in water. However, strongacids and bases manage almost complete dissociation in water though their conjugate acid or base isweak.As regards physical properties, acids are sour in taste and can burn or destroy substances they come incontact with. They leave a stinging effect on mucous membranes. Bases, on the other hand, taste bitter and have a soapy or slippery texture. Both acids and bases can be dangerous to the human body if of ahigh pH value. pH value of an Acid is lower than 7 and the pH value of a Base is higher than 7. Freshlydistilled water has a pH value of 7.
ACIDS AND BASESAcids
Terms Definitions
acetic acid food preservation and preparation, when in solution with water it is known as vinegar acetylsalicylicacid pain relief, fever relief, to reduce inflammation, known as aspirinascorbic acid antioxidant, vitamin, also called vitamin CCarbonic acid carbonated drinks, involved in cave stalactite and stalagmite formation and acid rainHydrochloricaciddigestion as gastric juice in stomach, to clean steal in a process known as pickling,commonly called muriatic acidnitric acid to make fertilizers, colorless, yet yellow when exposed to light phosphoric acidto make detergents, fertilizers and soft drinks, slightly sour but pleasant taste, detergentscontaining phosphates cause water pollutionsulfuric acidcar batteries, to manufacture fertilizers, and other chemicals, dehydrating agent, causes burns by removing water from cells
Bases
Terms Definitions
aluminumhydroxidecolor-fast fabrics, antacid, water purification, sticky gel that collects suspended clay anddirt particles on its surfacecalciumhydroxideleather-making, mortar and plaster, lessen acidity of soil, called caustic limemagnesiumhydroxidelaxative, antacid, called milk of magnesia when in water sodiumhydroxideto make soap, oven cleaner, drain cleaner, textiles, paper, called lye and caustic soda;generates heat (exothermic) when combined with water, reacts with metals to formhydrogenammoniacleaners, fertilizer, to make rayon and nylon, irritating odor that is damaging to nasal passages and lungs
TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Direct Combination or Synthesis Reaction
In a synthesis reaction two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product.

A + B → AB
Thecombination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide is an example of a synthesis reaction:8 Fe + S
8

→ 8 FeS

Chemical Decomposition or Analysis Reaction
In a decomposition reaction a compound is broken into smaller chemical species.
AB → A + B
The electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas is an example of a decompositionreaction:2 H
2
O → 2 H
2
+ O
2

Single Displacement or Substitution Reaction
A substitution or single displacement reaction is characterized by one element being displacedfrom a compound by another element.A + B
C → AC + B
An example of a substitution reaction occurs when zinc combines with hydrochloric acid. Thezinc replaces the hydrogen:
Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl
2
+ H
2

Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction
In a double displacement or metathesis reaction two compounds exchange bonds or ions in order to form different compounds.
AB + CD → AD + CB
An example of a double displacement reaction occurs between sodium chloride and silver nitrateto form sodium nitrate and silver chloride. NaCl(aq) + AgNO
3
(aq) → NaNO
3
(aq) + AgCl(s)

Acid-Base Reaction
An acid-base reaction is type of double displacement reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. The H
+
ion in the acid reacts with the OH
-
ion in the base to form water and an ionic salt:
HA + BOH → H
2
O + BAThe reaction between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide is an example of an acid- base reaction:
HBr + NaOH → NaBr + H
2
O

Oxidation-Reduction or Redox Reaction
In a redox reaction the oxidation numbers of atoms are changed. Redox reactions may involve the

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