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55 JHER Bali Flood Routing Jun11

55 JHER Bali Flood Routing Jun11

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Published by SudharsananPRS
flood routing
flood routing

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Published by: SudharsananPRS on Aug 17, 2013
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This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attachedcopy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial researchand education use, including for instruction at the authors institutionand sharing with colleagues.Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling orlicensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third partywebsites are prohibited.In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of thearticle (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website orinstitutional repository. Authors requiring further informationregarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies areencouraged to visit:http://www.elsevier.com/copyright
 
Author's personal copy
Research paper
Extended Muskingum method for flood routing
D. Nagesh Kumar
a,
*, Falguni Baliarsingh
b
, K. Srinivasa Raju
c
a
 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
b
 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering & Technology, Bhubaneswar, India
c
 Department of Civil Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India
Received 29 June 2009; revised 7 August 2010; accepted 12 August 2010
Abstract
Routing of floods is essential to control the flood flow at the flood control station such that it is within the specified safe limit. In this paper,the applicability of the extended Muskingum method is examined for routing of floods for a case study of Hirakud reservoir, Mahanadi riverbasin, India. The inflows to the flood control station are of two types
e
one controllable which comprises of reservoir releases for power and spilland the other is uncontrollable which comprises of inflow from lower tributaries and intermediate catchment between the reservoir and the floodcontrol station. Muskingum model is improved to incorporate multiple sources of inflows and single outflow to route the flood in the reach.Instead of time lag and prismoidal flow parameters, suitable coefficients for various types of inflows were derived using Linear Programming.Presently, the decisions about operation of gates of Hirakud dam are being taken once in 12 h during floods. However, four time intervals of 24,18, 12 and 6 h are examined to test the sensitivity of the routing time interval on the computed flood flow at the flood control station. It isobserved that mean relative error decreases with decrease in routing interval both for calibration and testing phase. It is concluded that theextended Muskingum method can be explored for similar reservoir configurations such as Hirakud reservoir with suitable modifications.
Ó
2010 International Association of Hydro-environment Engineering and Research, Asia Pacific Division. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rightsreserved.
Keywords:
Extended Muskingum; Linear programming; Mahanadi river basin
1. Introduction
Flood routing is an important aspect in reservoir operationfor flood control. This requires suitable flood routing relation-ship explicitly in the formulation of the policy. The releasesfrom reservoir during floods should be so controlled that thetotal flow at a downstream station is within the safe limit. Thedownstream station at which the specified maximum flow is tobe restricted is herein after referred as flood control station. Thefactors causing floods at flood control station are the release forpower and spill from reservoir, measured inflow to the riverfrom tributaries between the reservoir and the flood controlstation and unmeasured lateral flow from the intermediatecatchment. The last two factors, viz., measured inflow fromintermediate catchment and unmeasured lateral flows are notunder human control. Only the release from reservoir can becontrolled considering the safety and other criteria of thereservoir. There would be some time lag in terms of hours orevendaysforthereleaseofwaterfromthereservoirtoreachtheflood control station. It is necessary to know the effect of thereleased quantity from the reservoir, at the flood control stationat the time of taking decision about the reservoir releases. Theflood routing equation is specifically to be developed for thispurpose, and is considered as an important element in reservoiroperation.Flood routing is necessary for most of the reservoirs ingeneral and very much essential for Hirakud reservoir, Maha-nadi riverbasin,India inspecific.InMahanadi riverbasin,threereservoirs were originally proposed for full development of thebasin (Patri, 1993). But only one was constructed in the year1956 at Hirakud mainly to mitigate floods. As no additionalreservoirs are constructed till date, the existing reservoir is usedboth for flood control and conservation purposes. Various con-servation purposes of reservoir include irrigation, hydropower,
* Corresponding author. Tel.:
þ
91 80 2293 2666; fax:
þ
91 80 2360 0404.
E-mail address:
nagesh@civil.iisc.ernet.in(D.N. Kumar).
1570-6443/$-seefrontmatter
Ó
2010InternationalAssociationofHydro-environmentEngineeringandResearch,AsiaPacificDivision.PublishedbyElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi:10.1016/j.jher.2010.08.003
 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Journal of Hydro-environment Research 5 (2011) 127
e
135www.elsevier.com/locate/jher
 
Author's personal copy
drinking water supply, low-flow augmentation etc. Averagemonsoon inflow into the reservoir, observed in the history, isabout six times more than the live storage of the reservoir. Soflood control during high flood is extremely difficult andsometimes is not possible. To design a suitable flood controlmeasure, it is first necessary to optimize the resultant flow atNaraz by suitably routing the flood in the reach between thereservoir and Naraz. Efforts are continuing to extract maximumbenefitsfromthissinglereservoirofthebasin.Itisobservedthatthe operating policy in the form of rule curves for the reservoirwas changed six times from 1958 till to date. These changes aredue to the climatic and hydrologic changes in the basin andchangesinobjectivesofthereservoir.Inthisregard,sustainableandsystematicfloodcontrolpolicyforHirakudreservoiristobeevolved in a scientific way (Baliarsingh, 2000). The objectivesof the present study are as follows:1. Exploring the applicability of extended Muskingummethod (with multiple inflows
e
single outflow) as floodrouting model which has the ability to account for thelateral inflows.2. Exploring the applicability of Linear Programming fordetermining Muskingum parameters
0
,
1
, and
2
forvarious types of inflows.3. Development of relationship between discharge and otherparameters.4. Validation of above methodologies to the case study of Hirakud reservoir, Mahanadi river basin, India.The paper is organized as follows: literature review, des-cription of case study, data for flood routing, results anddiscussion and conclusions.
2. Literature review
The methods of flood routing are broadly classified asempirical,hydraulic,andhydrological(Fread,1981).Anumberof soft computing related techniques were used for flood fore-casting in addition to Muskingum method. A brief literaturereview is presented to provide an overview.Preliminary concepts and numerous applications of Artifi-cial Neural Networks (ANN) to hydrology are available(ASCE, 2000a,b; Fernando and Jayawardena, 1998).Cheng and Chau (2001), Cheng and Chau (2002)proposed fuzzyiteration methodology and three-person multi-objectiveconflict decision model respectively for reservoir flood controloperation for a case study of Fengman Reservoir, China.Chauet al. (2005)employed the Genetic Algorithm based ArtificialNeural Network (ANN-GA) and the Adaptive Network basedFuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), for flood forecasting ina reach of the Yangtze River in China. Similar studies arereported byCheng et al. (2002, 2008a,b).Muskingummethodisahydrologicalfloodroutingtechnique(Chowetal.,1988)whichwasmodifiedbymanyresearchers.Inthe two parameter Muskingum method, there are number of ways for finding the two parameters,
(travel time) and
x
(weighing factor for prism and wedge storage of routing reach).These methods were discussed in detail bySingh and McCann(1980)and applied to a set of data to assess their relative effi-cacy.Gill (1978)proposed segmented curve method, in whichleast square method was used to find out the parameters of nonlinear form of Muskingum method.Stephenson (1979)demonstrated the way to calculate directly the coefficients of Muskingum method,
0
,
1
, and
2
using Linear Programminginstead of calculating the parameters,
and
x
.O’Donnell (1985)considered the lateral flow factor inMuskingum two parameter model of single input single output(si-so) nature, which was converted into a three parametermodel. The parameters are
,
x
,
a
(
a
shows the fraction of lateral flow in comparison with inflow to the reach). The leastsquare technique is used to find out these parameters in therouting reach automatically.Khan (1993)extended the si-soflood routing model to include lateral flow to form a multiinput single output (mi-so) model with lateral flow.Tung (1985)developed state variable modeling techniquefor solving the nonlinear form of Muskingum method. Theparameters of the model were found out by four methods of curve fitting.Yoon and Padmanabhan (1993)developed a soft-ware, MUPERS, where both linear and nonlinear relationshipswere dealt with.Kshirsagar et al. (1995)found parameters bya constrained, nonlinear (successive quadratic) programming.In this work, the Muskingum equation was used for routing theupstream hydrograph and the intermediate ungauged lateralinflow. The lateral inflow was calculated by an impulseresponse function approach.Mohan (1997)used genetic algo-rithm for parameter estimation of nonlinear Muskingummethod and compared its performance with the approach byYoon and Padmanabhan (1993).Samani and Jebelifard (2003)applied multilinear Musk-ingummethodforhydrologicroutingthroughcircularconduits.Das (2004)developed a methodology for parameter estimationfor the Muskingum model of stream flow routing.Al-Humondand Esen (2006)presented two approximate methods for esti-mating Muskingum flood routing parameters.Geem (2006)introduced the Broyden
e
Fletcher
e
Goldfarb
e
Shanno (BFGS)technique, which searches the solution area based on gradientsfor estimation of Muskingum parameters.Choudhury (2007)proposed a multiple inflows Muskingummodel. This model appropriately extended the Muskingumphilosophy to multiple inflows routing, expressed in a singleinflowsingleoutflowform.Themodelperformanceiscomparedwiththenonlinearkinematicwavemodel.He applied themodelto the flood events in Narmada Basin, India.Das (2007)devel-oped a chance constrained optimization based model, forMuskingummodelparameterestimation.Das(2009)developeda methodology for Muskingum model’s parameter estimationforreverse stream flowrouting forwhicha freshcalibration wasfound necessary.Chu (2009)applied Fuzzy Inference System(FIS) andMuskingummodelinfloodrouting whererulesofFISwere incorporated with the Muskingum formula.As mentioned in the objectives of the present study,extended Muskingum method with multiple inflows
e
singleoutflow as developed byKhan (1993)is employed for a casestudy of Hirakud reservoir, Mahanadi river basin, India. Linear
128
D.N. Kumar et al. / Journal of Hydro-environment Research 5 (2011) 127 
e
135

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