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Software Testing Types.doc

Software Testing Types.doc

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Published by: Abdulraheman on Jun 04, 2009
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Software Testing Types
Static TestingOverview
The Verification activities fall into the category of Static Testing. During static testing,you have a checklist to check whether the work you are doing is going as per the setstandards of the organization. These standards can be for Coding, Integrating andDeployment. Review's, Inspection's and Walkthrough's are static testing methodologies.
Static testing
is a form of software testing where the software isn't actually used. This isin contrast to Dynamic testing. It is generally not detailed testing, but checks mainly for the sanity of the code, algorithm, or document. It is primarily syntax checking of the codeor and manually reading of the code or document to find errors. This type of testing can be used by the developer who wrote the code, in isolation. Code reviews, inspections andwalkthroughs are also used.From the black box testing point of view, static testing involves review of requirementsor specifications. This is done with an eye toward completeness or appropriateness for thetask at hand. This is the
portion of Verification and Validation.Bugs discovered at this stage of development are less expensive to fix than later in thedevelopment cycle.
Static Code Analysis
Static code analysis
is the analysis of computer software that is performed withoutactually executing programs built from that software (analysis performed on executing programs is known as dynamic analysis). In most cases the analysis is performed on
some version of the source code and in the other cases some form of the object code. Theterm is usually applied to the analysis performed by an automated tool, with humananalysis being called program understanding or program comprehension.The sophistication of the analysis performed by tools varies from those that onlyconsider the behavior of individual statements and declarations, to those that include thecomplete source code of a program in their analysis. Uses of the information obtainedfrom the analysis vary from highlighting possible coding errors (e.g., the lint tool) toformal methods that mathematically prove properties about a given program (e.g., its behavior matches that of its specification).Some people consider software metrics and reverse engineering to be forms of staticanalysis.A growing commercial use of static analysis is in the verification of properties of software used in safety-critical computer systems and locating potentially vulnerablecode.
Formal Methods
Formal methods is the term applied to the analysis of software (and hardware) whoseresults are obtained purely through the use of rigorous mathematical methods. Themathematical techniques used include denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics,operational semantics, and abstract interpretation.It has been proven that, barring some hypothesis that the state space of programs is finiteand small, finding possible run-time errors, or more generally any kind of violation of aspecification on the final result of a program, is undecidable: there is no mechanicalmethod that can always answer truthfully whether a given program may or may notexhibit runtime errors. This result dates from the works of Church, Gödel and Turing inthe 1930s (see the halting problem and Rice's theorem). As with most undecidablequestions, one can still attempt to give useful approximate solutions.Some of the implementation techniques of formal static analysis include:
Model checking considers systems that have finite state or may be reduced tofinite state by abstraction;
Abstract interpretation models the effect that every statement has on the state of an abstract machine (ie, it 'executes' the software based on the mathematical properties of each statement and declaration). This abstract machineoverapproximates the behaviours of the system: the abstract system is thus madesimpler to analyze, at the expense of 
(not every property true of the original system is true of the abstract system). If properly done, though,
abstract interpretation is
(every property true of the abstract system can bemapped to a true property of the original system).
Use of assertions in program code as first suggested by Hoare logic. There is toolsupport for some programming languages (e.g., the SPARK programminglanguage (a subset of Ada) and the Java Modeling Language — JML — usingESC/Java and ESC/Java2).
Dynamic TestingOverview
Dynamic Testing involves working with the software, giving input values and checking if the output is as expected. These are the Validation activities. Unit Tests, Integration Tests,System Tests and Acceptance Tests are few of the Dynamic Testing methodologies.
Dynamic testing
(or dynamic analysis) is a term used in software engineering to describe the testing of thedynamic behavior of code. That is, dynamic analysis refers to the examination of the physical response from the system to variables that are not constant and change withtime.In dynamic testing the software must actually be compiled and run; this is incontrast to static testing. Dynamic testing is the
portion of Verificationand Validation.Some of dynamic testing methodologies include:1.Unit Testing2.Integration Testing

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