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Software Testng Fundamental

Software Testng Fundamental

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Published by Abdulraheman

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Published by: Abdulraheman on Jun 04, 2009
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09/20/2010

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Software QA and Testing Frequently-Asked-Questions
1. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'?
Software QA involves the entire software development PROCESS - monitoringand improving the process, making sure that any agreed- upon standards andprocedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with.It is oriented to 'prevention'.
2. What is 'Software Testing'?
Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlledconditions and evaluating the results (e.g., 'if the user is in interface A of theapplication while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen'). Thecontrolled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions.Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.It is oriented to 'detection'.
3. What are some recent major computer system failures caused bysoftware bugs?
In April of 2003 it was announced that the largest student loan company in theU.S. made a software error in calculating the monthly payments on 800,000loans. Although borrowers were to be notified of an increase in their requiredpayments, the company will still reportedly lose $8 million in interest. Theerror was uncovered when borrowers began reporting inconsistencies in theirbills.News reports in February of 2003 revealed that the U.S. Treasury Departmentmailed 50,000 Social Security checks without any beneficiary names. Aspokesperson indicated that the missing names were due to an error in asoftware change. Replacement checks were subsequently mailed out with theproblem corrected, and recipients were then able to cash their Social Securitychecks.In March of 2002 it was reported that software bugs in Britain's national taxsystem resulted in more than 100,000Erroneous tax overcharges. The problem was partly attibuted to the difficultyof testing the integration of multiple systems.A newspaper columnist reported in July 2001 that a serious flaw was found inoff-the-shelf software that had long been used in systems for tracking certainU.S. nuclear materials. The same software had been recently donated to
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another country to be used in tracking their own nuclear materials, and it wasnot until scientists in that country discovered the problem, and shared theinformation, that U.S. officials became aware of the problems. According tonewspaper stories in mid-2001, a major systems development contractor wasfired and sued over problems with a large retirement plan managementsystem. According to the reports, the client claimed that system deliverieswere late, the software had excessive defects, and it caused other systems tocrash.In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad washit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. The company found that many of theirnewer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date'31/12/2000'; the trains were started by altering the control system's datesettings. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settlinga lawsuit with a large mortgage lender; the vendor had reportedly delivered anonline mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications, wasdelivered late, and didn't work.In early 2000, major problems were reported with a new computer system in alarge suburban U.S. public school district with 100,000+ students; problemsincluded 10,000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failedclass registration systems; the district's CIO was fired. The school districtdecided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until thebugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft wasbelieved to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. It wasdetermined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units thatshould have been in metric units. Among other tasks, the orbiter was to serveas a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission, which failed forunknown reasons in December 1999. Several investigating panels wereconvened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to goundetected.Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data networkaffected 70,000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999.Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.S.futures exchange, which was shut down for most of a week as a result of theoutages.In April of 1999 a software bug caused the failure of a $1.2 billion militarysatellite launch, the costliest unmanned accident in the history of CapeCanaveral launches. The failure was the latest in a string of launch failures,triggering a complete military and industry review of U.S. space launch
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programs, including software integration and testing processes. Congressionaloversight hearings were requested.A small town in Illinois received an unusually large monthly electric bill of $7million in March of 1999. This was about700 times larger than its normal bill. It turned out to be due to bugs in newsoftware that had been purchased by the local power company to deal withY2K software issues.
4. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about qualityassurance?
Solving problems is a high-visibility process; preventing problems is low-visibility. This is illustrated by an old parable:In ancient China there was a family of healers, one of whom was knownthroughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. Thephysician was asked which of his family was the most skillful healer. Hereplied,” I tend to the sick and dying with drastic and dramatic treatments, andon occasion someone is cured and my name gets out among the lords." "Myelder brother cures sickness when it just begins to take root, and his skills areknown among the local peasants and neighbors." "My eldest brother is able tosense the spirit of sickness and eradicate it before it takes form. His name isunknown outside our home."
5. Why does software have bugs?
Miscommunication or no communication - as to specifics of what an applicationshould or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Software complexity -the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehendfor anyone without experience in modern-day software development.Windows-type interfaces, client-server and distributed applications, datacommunications, enormous relational databases, and sheer size of applicationshave all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.And the use of object-oriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify aproject unless it is well engineered.Programming errors - programmers, like anyone else, can make mistakes.Changing requirements - the customer may not understand the effects of changes, or may understand and request them anyway - redesign,rescheduling of engineers, effects on other projects, work already completedthat may have to be redone or thrown out, hardware requirements that maybe affected, etc. If there are many minor changes or any major changes,
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