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A microcontroller based automatic solar tracking scheme

A microcontroller based automatic solar tracking scheme

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Published by avocadocolor
http://www.scribd.com/doc/51041431/Proceeding-of-Int-Conference-on-Environmental-Technology-and-Construction-Engineering-for-Sustainable-Development-2011
http://www.scribd.com/doc/51041431/Proceeding-of-Int-Conference-on-Environmental-Technology-and-Construction-Engineering-for-Sustainable-Development-2011

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Published by: avocadocolor on Aug 18, 2013
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11/25/2014

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  C  u   t   g  d  r   '  s   F  d  p  y
Notbroctndoci Fdo`brbofb do Bovnrdolbotci Qbfgodidjy coa Fdostruftndo Bojnobbrnoj `dr Vustcnoceib Abvbidplbot NFBQFBVA-5;33, Lcrfg 3;-35, 5;33, VRVQ, Vyigbt, Ecojicabsg
 
 TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Fdrrbspdoanoj Cutgdr=
Ar. Boclui Ecsgbr 
 Blcni=
bocluiTecsgbrKbbb.eubt.cf.ea 
 
C LNFUDFDOQUDIIBU ECVBA CRQDLCQNF VDICU QUCFHNOJ VFGBLB
AU. BOCLRI ECVGBU 
3
, LCU]NC GDSRB QCONC
5
 coa LA. VCLNRI CICL
5
 
3
Abpcrtlbot d` Bibftrnfci coa Bibftrdonf Bojnobbrnoj, Ecojicabsg Ronvbrsnty d` Bojnobbrnoj coa Qbfgodidjy, Agchc-3;;;, Ecojicabsg
5
Ubfbot Jrcauctb, Cgscouiicg Ronvbrsnty d` Vfnbofb coa Qbfgodidjy, Agchc-3532, Ecojicabsg
CEVQUCFQ
C sdicr bobrjy fdiibftnoj sur`cfb pbr`drls ebst wgbobvbr nt ns `cfba td tgb suo. No tgns rbsbcrfg, stuanbs gcvb ebbo fcrrnba dut td abvbidp c lnfrdprdfbssdr ecsba cutdlctnf sdicr trcfhbr idfciiy wntg ibcst fdst. Qgb systbl gcs ebbo prdjrcllba td abtbft tgb notbosnty d` suoinjgt ey c an``brbotnci crrcojblbot d` twd pgdtdrbsnstdrs coa suesbqubotiy cftuctb tgb ldtdr td pdsntndo tgb sdicr pcobi wgbrb nt fco rbfbnvb lcxnlul suoinjgt. Qgns pbrlnts tgb sdicr pcobi ldvnoj `rdl bcst td wbst coa rbturonoj `rdl wbst td tgb bcst, wntgno tgb cojib rbjuictndo rcojb d` ;-37;» `drwcra coa rbvbrsb. Qgb absnjoba systbl fco trcfh tgb ebttbr suoinjgt pdsntndo wntgno 3 sbf. Qgns lnfrdfdotrdiibr ecsba systbl wntg nts cuxnincrnbs coa stbppbr ldtdr arnvb crrcojblbot lcab nt notbrcftnvb wntg gnjg abjrbb d` ayoclnf coa stbcay stctb stceninty.
Hby Zdras=
 Ubobwceib bobrjy, pgdtdvditcnf, sdicr trcfhnoj systbl, lnfrdfdotrdiibr, stbppbr ldtdr, lcxnlul pdwbr fcpturb, fidsba-iddp fdotrdi.
3. NOQUDARFQNDO
Bobrjy ns dob d` tgb hby eunianoj eidfhs d` sustcnoceib abvbidplbot. Bvbo tdacy dob tgnra d` tgb wdria pdpuictndo adbs odt gcvb cffbss td bibftrnfnty coa crb odt fdoobftba td tgb octndoci jrna. Vdicr, wnoa, coa gyardbibftrnf pdwbr odt doiy prdaufb lnonlci fcredo blnssndos dofb tgb jbobrctnoj systbls crb no picfb, tgby cisd gbip rbaufb pdvbrty tgrdujg nlprdvba bobrjy cffbss no uoabrsbrvba crbcs. [gdtdvditcnf ([P) systbl wnii obba td picy c snjon`nfcot rdib no tgb wdria„s bobrjy lnx no 5;2; td gbip cfgnbvb jideci finlctb fgcojb jdcis ct tgb idwbst fdst X3\. Qgb Notbroctndoci Bobrjy Cjbofy bstnlctbs tgct obcriy 2;% d` jideci bibftrnfnty suppinbs wnii obba td fdlb `rdl rbobwceib bobrjy sdurfbs no drabr td gcivb fcredo andxnab blnssndos  ey 5;2; coa lnonlnzb snjon`nfcot, nrrbvbrsneib finlctb fgcojb nlpcfts X5\. Vdicr pcobis crb jbobrciiy stctnfciiy cinjoba ct icttntuab tnit cojib, tgby gcvb c `nxba pdsntndo ct tgct fbrtcno cojib tdwcras tgb shy8 tgb tnlb coa notbosnty d` anrbft suoinjgt `ciinoj updo tgb sdicr pcobi ns jrbctiy rbaufba, nt rbsuits no idw pdwbr dutput `rdl tgb [P fbiis. No drabr td gcvb lcxnlul pdwbr fcpturb tgrdujgdut tgb acy nt ns obfbsscry tgct tgb pgdtdvditcnf pcobis fgcojb tgbnr drnbotctndo tgrdujgdut tgb acy `diidwnoj tgb pctg d` tgb suo no tgb shy, tgns ns
 
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 672
 pdssneib ey lbcos d` co cutdlctnf sdicr trcfhnoj systbl. C sdicr trcfhbr nlprdvbs tgb b``nfnbofy d` sdicr bibftrnf dr tgbrlci bobrjy fdovbrsndo systbl X6\. Qgb lcno rbcsdo td usb c sdicr trcfhbr ns td rbaufb tgb fdst d` tgb bobrjy fcpturba ey tgb sdicr pcobi coa dtgbr frntbrndo `dr sdicr trcfhbr ns tgb b``nfnbofy. C trcfhbr prdaufbs ldrb pdwbr dvbr c idojbr tnlb tgco c stctndocry crrcy wntg tgb sclb oulebr d` ldauibs. @rdl tgb pcst abfcabs, sbvbrci tbfgonqubs coa bxpbrnlbot gcs ebbo abvbidpba `dr sdicr trcfhnoj abvnfb `dr co citbroctnvb sdurfb d` bobrjy. No tgns wdrh wb prbsbot c snojib cxns trcfhbr. Nt gbips lcxnlnznoj tgb novbstlbot no c [P systbl. Blebaaba fdotrdiiba sdicr trcfhbr inhb X1\ obbas stctnstnfci actc dvbr c idoj pbrnda d` tnlb. Fdovbrsbiy prbsbotba  prdtdtypb cvdnas cii tgb fdlpibx fcifuictndos. Qgns sfgblb fco eb bcsniy fdovbrtba td c auci cxns trcfhbr. Cftuciiy trcfhbrs obba odt pdnot anrbftiy ct tgb suo td eb b``bftnvb, coa n` tgb cnl ns d`` ey tbo abjrbbs tgb dutput ns stnii >7.2% d` tgb `uii-trcfhnoj lcxnlul. Auci cxns trcfhnoj ns b``bftnvb doiy `dr sbcsdoci trcfhnoj8 tgbrb`drb snojib cxns trcfhnoj ns su``nfnbot `dr b``bftnvb bobrjy trcos`drlctndo. Nt gcs ebttbr cffurcfy. Nt gcs ibss abpboabofb no gcrawcrb. Nt ns ldrb `bcsneib tgco X2, 0\. Nt ns vbry usbr `rnboaiy, bcsniy rbprdjrcllceib coa oulbrdus `bcturbs fco eb caaba td nt, n` rbqunrba.
5. VDICU QUCFHBUV
C Vdicr trcfhbr ns c abvnfb `dr drnbotnoj c sdicr pgdtdvditcnf pcobi dr fdofbotrctnoj sdicr rb`ibftdr dr ibos tdwcra tgb suo. Qgb suo's pdsntndo no tgb shy vcrnbs edtg wntg tgb sbcsdos (bibvctndo) coa tnlb d` acy cs tgb suo ldvbs cfrdss tgb shy. Vdicr pdwbrba bqunplbot wdrhs  ebst wgbo pdnotba ct dr obcr tgb suo, sd c sdicr trcfhbr fco nofrbcsb tgb b``bftnvbobss d` sufg bqunplbot dvbr coy `nxba pdsntndo, ct tgb fdst d` caantndoci systbl fdlpibxnty. Qgb caantndoci dutput dr ’jcno“ fco eb qucotn`nba cs c pbrfbotcjb d` tgb dutput d` tgb stctndocry crrcy. Jcno vcrnbs snjon`nfcotiy wntg ictntuab, finlctb, coa tgb typb d` trcfhbr dob fgddsbs- cs wbii cs tgb drnbotctndo d` c stctndocry nostciictndo no tgb sclb idfctndo. (Qgb bobrjy rbqunrba td ldvb tgb trcfhbr ns nosnjon`nfcot no tgbsb fcifuictndos.) Finlctb ns tgb ldst nlpdrtcot `cftdr. Qgb ldrb suo coa ibss fiduas, ldnsturb, gczb, aust, coa sldj, tgb jrbctbr tgb jcno prdvnaba ey trcfhbrs. Ct gnjgbr ictntuabs jcno wnii eb nofrbcsba aub td tgb idoj crf d` tgb sullbr suo. No tgb fiduanbst, gcznbst idfctndos tgb jcno no coouci dutput `rdl trcfhbrs fco eb no tgb idw 5; pbrfbot rcojb. No c jnvbo crbc tgb coouci jcno do coy jnvbo acy lcy vcry `rdl cildst zbrd td obcriy 3;; pbrfbot. No jbobrci, c trcfhbr caas ldst td dutput aurnoj tgb gdurs wgbo c stctndocry crrcy prdaufbs tgb ibcst pdwbr. Qgbrb crb sbvbrci typbs d` ficssn`nfctndo d` sdicr trcfhbr. Fdosnabrnoj ldvblbot fcpceninty, tgrbb lcno typbs d` suo trcfhbrs fco eb `duoa-`nxba sur`cfbs X:\, dob cxns trcfhbrs X7\ coa twd cxbs trcfhbrs X>\.Qgb clduot bobrjy tgby prdaufb ns vcrnba aub td tgb ceninty d` rbaufnoj tgb  pdnotnoj brrdr, nofrbcsnoj tgb acniy nrrcanctndo tgct tgb sdicr fbiis rbfbnvb. An``brbot stuanbs gcvb ebbo lcab td ad c fdlpcrctnvb stuay ebtwbbo tgb bobrjy cvcniceib td c twd cxbs trcfhbr, co bcst‖wbst trcfhbr coa c `nxba sur`cfb X3;\.
 
  C  u   t   g  d  r   '  s   F  d  p  y
 670
@nj 3= Dob coa twd cxns trcfhnoj [P crrcy X1, 33\ Cs lcno rbsuits, nt fdofiuaba tgct tgb coouci bobrjy cvcniceib td tgb nabci trcfhbr ns gnjgbr ey 2‖3;% coa 2;% tgco tgb bcst‖wbst trcfhbr coa tgb `nxba sur`cfb, rbspbftnvbiy. Codtgbr ficssn`nfctndo fco eb lcab rbjcranoj fdotrdi uonts, tgb lcmdr typbs d` sdicr trcfhbrs crb X35\=  pcssnvb, lnfrdprdfbssdr coa bibftrd-dptnfci fdotrdiiba uonts. No tgb `nrst dob tgbrb ns od bibftrdonf fdotrdi dr ldtdr X36\. Qgb sbfdoa dobs usb lctgblctnfci `drluicb td prbanft tgb suo„s ldvblbot coa obba odt sbosb tgb suoinjgt. Co bxclpib d` tgns hnoa d` uont fco eb `duoa no X>\. Coa no tgb icst dob, tgb bibftrd-dptnfci fdotrdiiba uonts tgct usb tgb sbosnoj no`drlctndo `rdl sbosdr inhb cuxnincry en`cfnci sdicr fbii pcobi, pyrgbindlbtbr td bstnlctb tgb suo„s rbci pdsntndo coa usb no tgb fdotrdi cijdrntgl X7, 31\.
5.3 Fidsba-iddp typbs d` suo trcfhnoj systbls
 Fidsba-iddp typbs d` suo trcfhnoj systbls crb ecsba do `bbaecfh fdotrdi prnofnpibs. No tgbsb systbls, c oulebr d` noputs crb trcos`brrba td c fdotrdiibr `rdl sbosdrs wgnfg abtbft rbibvcot  pcrclbtbrs noaufba ey tgb suo, lconpuictba no tgb fdotrdiibr coa tgbo ynbia dutputs (n.b. sbosdr-ecsba). @rdl pbr`drlcofb tbst d` suo-trcfhnoj systbls X32\ jcno no bobrjy prdauftndo fdlpcrnoj wntg c odo-trcfhnoj systbls coa brrdr ns fdlpcrba ebtwbbo dpbo-iddp coa fidsb-iddp fdotrdi suo-trcfhbrs. Rsnoj dpbo-iddp fdotrdi suo trcfhbr lcxnlul 13% jcno gcs ebbo cfgnbvba tgco tgb odo-trcfhnoj ldauibs. Bobrjy prdauftndo jcno fco eb 3;-:2% `dr an``brbot typb fidsb-iddp fdotrdi suo trcfhbrs.
6. @UCLBZDUH D@ QGB VDICU QUCFHBU [UDQDQ^[B Qgb absnjo wb prbsbot ns ecsba do tgb `diidwnoj frntbrndos-
 
Vnlpinfnty
 
Idw fdst
 
Bcsy td fdostruft
 
Lnonlul lcnotbocofb
 
Ubinceninty
 
Ibss stbcay stctb brrdr
 
Ayoclnf dutput
 
Gnjg Fdovbrjbofb Vpbba
 
Cvcniceninty d` fdlpdobots
 
Noabpboabot d` [P fgcrcftbrnstnfs
6.3 Zdrhnoj lbtgdadidjy d` absnjoba sdicr trcfhbr
 Qgns absnjo ns abvbidpba coa nlpiblbotba usnoj c snlpin`nba gdrnzdotci-cxns coa cftnvb trcfhbr lbtgda `nttba td c sdicr pcobi. Nt ns ceib td ocvnjctb td tgb ebst cojib d` bxpdsurb d`

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