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General Engineering Data Boilers Cleavrs Broocks

General Engineering Data Boilers Cleavrs Broocks

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Published by chivanortena

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Published by: chivanortena on Aug 19, 2013
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1
CONTENTS
STEAM PIPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3WATER PIPING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3NATURAL GAS PIPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FUEL OIL PIPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4EQUIVALENT LENGTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10STACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10FACTORS OF EVAPORATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Fuel Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Fuel Oil Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21UNIT CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32STANDARDS ASSOCIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
ILLUSTRATIONS
TABLES
General Engineering Data
 
General Engineering Data 
2
Table 14. Thermal Properties of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Table 15. Saturated Steam Properties, Temperature Table (Sheet 1 of 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Table 16. Saturated Steam Properties, Pressure Table (Sheet 1 of 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Table 17. Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Table 18. Conversion Factors (Sheet 1 of 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Table 19. pH Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Table 20. Salinity Indicating Readings Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Table 21. Useful Physical Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Table 22. Conversions Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Table 23. Approximate Common Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Table 24. Conversions Accurate to Parts per Million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44This section, General Engineering Data, covers four main areas. The first includes information on sizing of steam,water, natural gas, and fuel oil piping. It also provides information on stacks.Thermodynamic Properties contains information on fuel oils, water, and steam, including viscosities, thermalproperties of water, and properties of saturated steam.Unit Conversion includes an extensive conversion table for commonly used units of measurement.Finally, a list is provided of associations responsible for publishing standards relevant to the boiler industry andboiler room practices.
 
 General Engineering Data
3
STEAM PIPING
Figure 1allows pressure drop to be calculated given saturated steam pressure, flowrate and pipe diameter. Although the example covers calculating pressure drop, it ispossible to work backwards to calculate pipe size, given pressure drop.
Example for Steam Pipe Chart, Pounds per Minute to Pressure Drop
A 500 hp boiler at 125 psig has a capacity of 17210 lbs/hr. Pressure drop will befound through 100 feet of 5" inside diameter pipe.First, convert pounds/hr to pounds/min by dividing by 60:17210 ÷ 60 = 285Next, convert psig to absolute pressure by adding 14.7:125 + 14.7 = 139.7Now, plot 140 (the pressure) on its corresponding axis. This gives point
 A
. Draw aline from
 A
through
B
, which is the pipe diameter. Continue this line to the axis, X.This gives point
C
.A new line is plotted from point
C
, through the pounds of steam per minute axis(point
D
). This line ends at the pressure drop axis, for a drop of slightly more than2.5 psi per 100 feet of pipe.
 Example for Steam Pipe Chart, Pounds per Minute to Feet per Minute
The same specifications will be used from the previous example.For this chart, begin with pounds/min. This gives point
 A
. Draw the line throughthe proper point (in this case, point
B
) on the diameter axis to the X axis (point
C
).Next, plot from the X axis through the appropriate pressure (point
D
) to get steamvelocity. In this example, that corresponds to 3200 feet per minute.
WATER PIPING
 Hot Water Boiler Example
In this example, pressure drop will be calculated for a 500 hp hot water boiler witha 20 °F temperature differential. This corresponds to approximately 1700 gpm.The system will use 10" nominal size schedule 40 pipe. These two figures areplotted on their respective axis, giving points A and B. A line is drawn through thesetwo points and the remaining two axis, giving a pressure drop of.57 psig (1.3 ft. ofwater) and a 6.4 feet per second velocity.
500 hp x 33475Btuhr x hpxlb x °F1 Btu1 hr 60 minx xgallon8.3 lb=1680gallonsm in120 °Fx

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