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A Cutting Force Estimator for CNC Machining Centers

A Cutting Force Estimator for CNC Machining Centers

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A
Cutting Force Estimator for CNC Machining Centers
M. Dolen', B. Kaftanoglu' (I),
R.
D. Lorenz'Middle East Technical University, Dept. of Mech. Engineering, Ankara, Turkey'university of Wisconsin
-
Madison, Dept. of Mech. Engineering, Madison, USA
1
Abstract
This study presents a cutting force estimator topology for feed drives of CNC vertical machining centers tocompute the machining forces accurately. The estimator employs recursive discrete Fourier transform to notonly estimate inertial forces on the system but also to filter effectively the noise components in themeasurements. The accuracy of the estimator is compared to that of a Luenberger observer while the overallperformance of the estimator is evaluated through an experimental study. The paper also discusses itsinherent limitations.
Keywords
Machine, Estimating, Measurement
1
INTRODUCTION
Cutting force sensors in CNC technology can potentiallyprovide the most crucial information for adaptive control,tool-condition monitoring, and detection of chattervibrations [I]. Although force sensors are currentlyavailable in the market for a wide variety of CNCmachines, they have not gained recognition in industry dueto their well-known drawbacks. Hence, the technologicaltrend in the industry is towards the employment ofestimation schemes as well as the elimination of sensorswherever these methods are feasible alternatives.To estimate the machining forces accurately, the CNCmachine tool feed drives (FDs), which are directlysubjected to the machining forces, must be thoroughlymodeled. The research in this field is generally on thedevelopment of advanced digital control algorithms withthe utilization of rather simple linear models of thecontrolled FD (Van Brussel and Vastmans [2] and Kulkarniet a/. [3]). Only a handful of studies concentrate on theestimation of machining forces by utilizing accuratephysical FD models. For instance, Stein et a/. [4] hasconducted a sensitivity analysis on the currents drawn bythe FD motor of a CNC lathe. Their analysis reveals thefeasibility of designing a disturbance force estimator thatemploys current measurements. Similarly, Altintas [5]developed a simple electromechanical FD model toestimate the cutting force components. Although theestimation results are in good agreement with the steady-state experimental data; the method, which does notinclude inertial forces, produces some deviations whenestimating transient forces.Main motivation of this paper is to develop an accurate-(and high-bandwidth) force estimator for CNC machinetools with the utilization of advanced FD physical modelsthat includes the major nonlinearities of such systems.
2
FEED DRIVE MODELLING
To estimate the disturbance on a FD system, one needs todevelop the electromechanical model of a typical FD asshown in Fig. 1. The differential equations governing themotion for the FD table can be written as follows:Here Fsl is the force applied by the nut to the table; Ffl isthe friction force on the table. With respect to the motorside, one can write the following:where Tfl, Tsl, and Teml are friction torque, load torque,and electromagnetic torque respectively.Figure 1: Typical mechanical feed drive system.The motor side contains several preloaded ball bearingscausing frictional losses. Employing the (empirical) bearingfriction model [6] yields the motor friction torque:Tr1
=
(brl~rl~~
To11.w
(0111
(3)where bl and To1 are positive constants; while
w1
refers tothe speed of the motor. Utilizing all three equations yieldsthe differential equation of the FD system:where J,1is the equivalent inertia; hs is the pitch of feedscrew
[m]
while
qs
refers to the efficiency of the screw.Assuming that the same type of screw and the motor areutilized in the Y-axis FD (a.k.a. "saddle"), one can derive asimilar differential equation. Note that the friction force Ff(Ffl or Ff2) in (4) can be expressed as follows:
Fr
=
,u(v)FN
(5)
where FN is the equivalent normal force induced by thedynamic load on the table. For hydrodynamic guideways,the friction coefficient
p
takes the following form [7]:p(v)
=
sgn(v).(cl
+
c~e-c3v)
+
c4v(6)where table speed v
=
hsw/2x (vDO'); c1,
...,
c4 are(positive) empiric friction coefficients. It is clear from (4)that the friction force (Ffl or Ff2) needs to be determinedaccurately to estimate these process forces. Dolen [8]presents a detailed friction (normal force) model forhydrodynamic guideways. The normal force is heavilyaffected by the magnitudes of cutting force components.Dolen [8] shows that the model boils down to a simple
 
Coulomb (dry) friction model for light machining conditionswhere the magnitudes of average machining forces areless than 1kN.
3
CUTTING FORCE ESTIMATION
Disturbance force estimation has three components:
i.
acceleration estimation;
ii.
current filtering and/orelectromagnetic torque estimation;
iii.
friction forceestimation and decoupling. Fig. 2 illustrates the networkdesign incorporating these important ingredients. Theestimator essentially generates all basis functions in
(4).
That is, the viscous- and the Coulomb friction torque termsin
(4)
are directly calculated while a recursive discreteFourier transform (RDFT) network, which is illustrated inFig.
3,
is used not only to filter out the switching noise inthe armature current of the brush-type DC motor but alsoto calculate the inertial torque on the motor.
I
P
Kmemabc FncbonCoefficient Eshmation
I I- I I
Eshmator
Figure 2: Generic cutting force estimator.Fig.
4
shows a generic unit of the RDFT network. The unitsare designed to extract a particular harmonic component ofa periodic waveform [9]. After spectral decomposition,high-order (time) derivatives of any harmonic componentcan be easily computed in frequency domain. Changing aunit's free parameters (a, b) yields a different function:Setting a
=
(2/N) cos(wT) and b
=
(2/N) sin(wT), (see Fig.
4)
implements a harmonic-filtering (namely, Do) unitoperating at the frequency
w.
Here, N refers to the lengthof data window while T denotes the sampling period of thenetwork. With a
=
(2w/N) sin(wT) and b
=
(2w/N) cos(wT); aharmonic differentiation unit (a.k.a. D') could be realized.
YW
.r_
im
t
bT
i
Figure
3:
RDFT networkSince milling forces are periodic in nature, all relevantstates of the FD system (e.g., velocity, current), which areaffected by these forces, are periodic as well. Thus, theycan be conveniently represented in frequency domain.Furthermore, as the major frequency components of thecutting force (and all the correlated signals) in milling are atDC, spindle frequency and tooth passing frequency, only ahandful of RDFT units are required to perform the desiredcalculations.The disturbance force estimate of this topology initiallyincludes the friction force on the table. Therefore, a frictionforce estimate is needed to separate out the cutting forcecomponent (F, or Fy). The recurrent (feedback) networkshown in Fig. 2, carries out this decoupling processiteratively. The design issues, accuracy, convergence rate,and stability of this network are further discussed in [8].
o:!
IW
I
I
I
I
c
=
cos
(wT)
Figure
4:
Generic RDFT unit.The proposed estimator requires accurate estimates onphysical FD parameters. If they are estimated throughindividual tests on the FD system, no fine tuning is needed.However, when such an identification scheme is notdesired (or too costly), Dolen [8] proposes a general tuningprocedure for this nonlinear estimator.
4
PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS
A well-designed disturbance observer such as the one inFig. 5 [lo] could be a viable alternative to the presentedestimator in terms of accuracy, bandwidth, hardware cost,etc. Therefore, a detailed simulation study has beenconducted to study the accuracy issues of these twocompeting techniques.
L
I
Figure 5: Continuous-time disturbance force observer.The accuracies of both methods are to be computed (atthe steady state) as a function of spindle speed
(a)
nderdifferent conditions. A disturbance force in the form of
(7)
is applied to the simulated FD for a given set of harmonicfrequencies:Fd(t)
=
~FflCOS(n.Cf
p,)
(7)
n40,I
41
where
(p,
are random numbers with U(0,2x) (uniformprobability density between
0
and 2x) while F, are randomvariables with U(-F,F) such that IF1~(1000,
000, 5000)
[N]represents light, normal, and heavy machining conditionsrespectively. The (dimensionless) accuracy
A@)
can becalculated for a number of spindle frequencies:
 
The physical parameter estimates for both methods mustbe equivalent to make a fair comparison. To accomplishthat, various tests are conducted on the simulated drives,including acceleration tests, constant speed (with no load)tests, a variety of light machining tests. The observerparameters
(Je,
be, T,Kt, Ks) are indirectly computed usingthe data obtained from these tests. The observer is thentuned to a bandwidth frequency of 100Hz. With respect tothe estimator, similar tests, which additionally includemedium and heavy machining conditions, are performed toobtain the additional friction process parameters.Fig.
6
illustrates the accuracy of both methods. Omittingthe characteristics of acceleration estimation for bothmethods, the only major difference between them is thatthe estimator incorporates a detailed friction model. As canbe seen, the estimator is significantly more accurate thanthe observer at almost every machining condition. Themean relative-errors can be given as 8.14% and 3.29% forthe observer and the estimator respectively. Hence, theresulting accuracy improvement is by a factor of 2.5.However, it is critical to notice that the accuracy of bothtechniques heavily depends on the quality of estimates onthe physical system parameters [lo].database. The basis functions
Y
of the process beingcomputed by estimator can then be formed with theseparameters. The Recursive Least Squares (RLS) withexponential data weighting [I21 is hereby chosen as aweight adaptation (supervisory) algorithm:e,(k)
=
Fp(k)
-
W;(k-l)Y(k-l)
(9c)
where Wo(k) is the parameter vector
E
??I4'';
(k) is errorcovariance matrix;
h
is the forgetting factor (0.95
..
0.99)while k is the time index (k
=
1,2,
...).
The forgetting factoralong with the initial values of WOand P dramatically affectthe estimation performance of the algorithm.
Also
the initialspindle angle
(eo),
which aligns the basis functions
(Y)
iththe estimates, plays a critical role on the accuracy. Eventhough a special estimator topology can be designed todetect
00,
it is here assumed to be known beforehand forthe sake of convenience.
X-axn
cuulng
Force
Estmator
Supervisor
(RLS)
Selector
I
i4
y-axlsc-
I
Force
EstmaG
I
Figure
6:
Accuracy plots for various machining condition.
5
OVERALL ESTIMATOR TOPOLOGYThe main problem in estimating the forces using thetopology presented in the previous section is that whenone of the drive motors of the machine is stalled, thecutting force component in that direction could not beusually evaluated due to strong Coulomb friction on the FDmechanical system (guideways and transmission system)[9]. In such a case, one of the principal cutting forcecomponents is assumed to be missing and has to begenerated with the utilization of the available cutting forcecomponent at hand.To construct the unknown cutting force component, theestimator shown in Fig.
7
has been developed. In thistopology, the selector in this topology simply invokes thereference (end-milling) model whenever one of the FDmotors is stalled (e.g. machining is done along afundamental axis). Thus, the supervisor adjusts thecorresponding model coefficients by relying on the cuttingforce estimate of the running drive. Note that a cross-reference process model proposed by [I ] s employed tocompute the model coefficients of the unknowncomponent. As a result, the missing process force F,(where p stands for either x or y) can be generated in astraightforward fashion.In this scheme, the cut geometry parameters
0
(i.e. radialand axial depth of cut) are to be retrieved from the CIMFigure
7:
General cutting force estimator topology
6
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSA number of machining tests have been performed toillustrate the performance of the estimator when one of theFD motors was stalled. The relevant parameters ofmachining tests are given in the Appendix. With
h
=
0.95,the RLS algorithm is only allowed to run during onemachining period. Here, the initial covariance matrix istaken as P(0)
=
0.5.14~4,
I:
identity matrix) while WO sinitialized with the rough estimates on the cutting-forceintensity coefficients (see [Ill) to increase the speed ofconvergence. In the adaptation phase, the algorithmadjusts the corresponding parameters of the model byutilizing the force estimates of the running drive. To makea fair evaluation; the (reference) model "predictions" for astalled-drive are compared to the corresponding forcemeasurements. Figs. 8 and 9 demonstrate the results. Ascan be seen, there exist some offsets between the RLSpredictions and the measurements since the plowingforces at the flat-end of the cutting tool have not beenincorporated to the reference model. Despite these offsets,the accuracy and bandwidth of the topology are found tobe acceptable for most CNC machine tool applications.
7
CONCLUSIONThis paper proposed a novel disturbance force estimatorfor CNC machining centers. Unlike the observer, theestimator is not sensitive to measurement noise due toRDFT based
filtering/differentiation
scheme. Since theproposed estimator incorporates a sophisticated frictionmodel for the hydrodynamic guideways, it can decouplethe friction forces from the principal cutting forcecomponents in an iterative fashion. Not surprisingly, itsestimation accuracy was found to be significantly better

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