Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Abstract

Abstract

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0 |Likes:
Published by Thắng Hồ

More info:

Published by: Thắng Hồ on Aug 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Abstract
 The use of Vetiver grass for natural disaster mitigation in Vietnam has become very popular despite the fact it has been introduced into Vietnam for such purpose only 5-6 yearsago and it was met with considerable pessimism at the beginning. However, thanks to thefaith and efforts of some Vietnamese enthusiasts and believers, the grass is now knownthroughout the country and is in use practically in about 30 provinces (out of the total 64). Itis planted in a very wide range of soil types and climatic conditions, from very cold winter inthe North, very hot summer-cold winter, pure sand in Central Vietnam to acid sulphate soil,saline soil in the Mekong Delta.The widest application of the VS is for river bank, irrigation canal, river and sea dykeerosion control, cut slope stabilization along highways. But it is also used for sand dunestabilisation, reduction of soil erosion on sloping farm land due to surface runoff, reduction of flood damages etc. And very recently, several trials have been made in using VS for wastewater and pollution control, for reclamation of toxic, poisonous soil etc. Many lessonshave been drawn out on the use of Vetiver grass, including its advantages and disadvantagesas well as comparison with other, either rigid, ineffective, expensive, environmental-unfriendly structural measures or traditional bio-engineering approach. A plan to compile amanual on the use of Vetiver grass for natural disaster mitigation (the so-called “brown book”) is now being implemented and it is expected to see the light in the coming months of 2006. It appears very appropriate now to have an overview of the change of mind of managers, scientists, practitioners and even farmers with regards to Vetiver grass, of what has been done and what hasn’t and has to be strived for in the future, so that this low cost, veryeffective, simple to apply and environmental friendly bio-engineering measure becomes thefirst choice to consider when it comes to natural disaster mitigation in Vietnam.
Tóm t
ắt
 S
ử dụng cỏ Vetiver để làm giảm những thiên tai ở Việt Nam đã trở nê
n ph
ổ biến, mặc
dù th
ật sự nó được đưa vào Việt Nam cho mục đích này chỉ cách đây 5
-
6 năm, và giai đoạnđầu xem như không khả quan. Tuy nhiên, nhờ vào lòng tin và sự nổ lực của những người
Vi
ệt Nam đam mê và tin tưởng, cây cỏ Vetiver đang được phổ biến tro
ng c
ả nước được ứng
ụng thực tiển khoảng 30 tỉnh trong số 64 tỉnh thành cả nước. Cỏ Vetiver thích nghi rộng rãi
v
ới nhiều loại đất và nhiều điều kiện thời tiết khác nhau, từ mùa đông lạnh ở miền Bắc, rất
nóng vào mùa hè - r 
ất lạnh vào mùa đông và vùng cát
 
ở miền trung Việt Nam cho đến vùngđất acid, đất mặn ở đồng bằng sông Cửu Long.
 S
ử dụng cỏ Vetiver phổ biến nhất là vào việc kiểm soát sự xói mòn ở vùng ven sông,
kênh d 
ẫn nước và ven bờ biển, ngăn sạt lỡ đất dốc của xa lộ. Ngoài ra, nó còn được sử dụng
cho vi
ệc ổn định những bãi cát, giảm xói mòn đất nông trại có độ dốc cao, vận tốc nước chảy
l
ớn, hạn chế sự phá hại của lũ lụt,.v.v…Gần đây, có nhiều thử nghiệm đã và đang nghiên cứu
c
ỏ Vetiver trong xử lý nước thải và ô nhiểm môi trường, cải tạo tính độc, độc chất lưu tồntrong đất, v.v…Nhiều bài học rút ra về việc sử dụng cỏ Vetiver, bao gồm cả những thuận lợi
b
ất lợi của nó cũng như so sánh giữa chúng với nhau, hoặc là những con số cứng nhắc,
không hi
ệu quả, đắc tiền, và không thân thiện với môi trường hoặc là áp dụng những tiến bộ
trong công ngh
ệ sinh học. Những kế họach được biên soạn hàng năm về việc sử dụng cỏ
Vetiver trong vi
ệc làm giảm nhẹ thiên tai (còn được gọi là “Cẩm Nang”) đã và đang thực
hi
ện, hy vọng sẽ có những kết quả tốt đẹp tron
g nh
ững tháng tới của năm 2006. Hiện nay, cây
c
ỏ Vetiver được chấp nhận và nó làm thay đổi quan điểm của các nhà quản lý, nhà khoa học
và ngay c
ả người nông dân cũng phải quan tâm đến nó, những gì đã thành công cũng như
nh
ững gì chưa đạt được sẽ phấn đấu trong tương lai. Hiệu quả cao, chi phí thấp, áp dụng đơn
 
gi
ản, thân thiện với môi trường, tất cả những ưu điểm này đã trở thành sự lựa chọn đầu tiên
trong vi
ệc áp dụng cỏ Vetiver để giảm nhẹ những bất lợi của thiên tai tại Việt Nam.
 
I. Introduction
 The use of vegetation as a bio-engineering tool for land reclamation, erosion control and slope stabilization have been implemented for centuries and its popularity has increased remarkably in the last decades. This is partly due to the fact that more knowledge and information on vegetation are now available for application in engineering designs, but also partly due to the cost-effectiveness and environment-friendliness of this “soft”, bio-engineering approach.Although Vetiver grass (
Vetiveria zizanioides
) has been used first by Indian farmers for soil and water conservation more than 200 years ago, its real impact on land stabilization/reclamation, soil erosion and sediment control only started in the late 1980’sfollowing its promotion by the World Bank. While it still plays a vital role in agriculture, theunique morphological, physiological and ecological characteristics of the grass including itstolerance to highly adverse growing conditions and tolerance to high levels of toxicities provide an unique bio-engineering tool for other, non-agricultural applications such as land stabilization/reclamation, soil erosion and sediment control.Having been introduced into Vietnam in 1999 by The International Vetiver Network (TVN) and since actively promoted by the Vietnam Vetiver Network (VNVN), the grass has become widely known throughout the country with numerous successful applications for natural disaster mitigation. Typical examples include road cut-slope stability enhancement,erosion/flood control of embankments, dykes, riverbanks, sand dune fixation as well as wasteand leachate control etc.
II. Natural disasters in Vietnam
 Vietnam is a natural disaster-prone country, where many types of natural disasters take place annually, causing a lot of losses of life, economic and environmental damages. Located in the tropical monsoon zone the country features a marked seasonal rhythm of rainfall of roughly 2,000 mm/year. However, about 75-80% of the rainfall takes place usually onlyduring the 3 months of summer (starting from May in the North but becoming later and later to the South so that the actual rainy season in Central and South Vietnam usually lasts fromSeptember to November, sometimes until early December. And although there are about 200rainy days a year, the major portion of the rain intensity falls in just about 10 days with morethan 100 mm/day records. Coupled with the very diverse geological conditions, includingmany rock/soil types, active tectonic regime and the fast economic and demographic growthwith its uncontroled negative environmental degradation during the last two decades, suchclimatic extremes cause severe natural disasters, most frequent and destructive being floods,landslides and debris flows, flash floods, river bank and coastal erosion, sand storm/flow etc.Total loss of life and properties by natural disasters has rapidly increased in 1990s asshown in the figure below. According to the “Second National Strategy and Action Plan for Disaster Mitigation and Management in Vietnam-2001 to 2020 (2001)”, about eight thousand  people were killed, 2.3 million tons of foods were destroyed, and 6 million houses collapsed and washed away in the decade of 1991 to 2000. The total estimated economic loss was aboutUS 2.8 billion dollar, i.e. 1.8-2.3% of the national GDP.
 
 A research project on natural hazards of geologic origin (geohazards) in 8 coastal provinces of Central Vietnam has been carried out recently (RIGMR, 2000-2002) shows thatriver bank and coastal erosion, landslide, sand storm and sand flow are mainly caused byshort but catastrophic storm/floods. A survey has been conducted for more than 850 km of  banks of 25 main rivers and more than 900 km of the coastline in the region. It has identified in each province tens of km of river bank or coastline that are currently severely eroding.Further, there are hundreds of km of river bank and coastline that are subject to moderate and slight erosion. At the same time, a landslide inventory survey has also been conducted for mountainous regions. More than 1600 landslides have been mapped including nearly 100large-sized landslides. Among them, quite a few landslides occurred along important nationaland provincial routes. An example was the large landslide on the Hai Van Pass in 1999 thattotally interrupted the North-South traffic for more than half a month and cost more than 1million US dollars for remedial work.The project also shows that geohazards can be classified into the following groups:1. Geohazards of endogenous origin, associated with present geodynamic processes thattake place on or inside the Earth’s crust, or caused by the nature of the geologicenvironment, including earthquake, volcanic eruption, faulting, regional subsidence,tsunami etc. and geophysic-geochemic anomalies (natural radioactive emission, lack or surplus of micro-elements etc.);2. Water-related geohazards, usually caused by the combined action of endogenous,exogenous processes and human activities, including the following sub-groups:2.1. Geohazards where water plays the main destructive role, including flash flood in themountains, flood and inundation in the delta, drought, desertification etc.2.2. Geohazards where water is one of important causes, including landslide, debris flow,coastal and river bank erosion, surface erosion, local subsidence etc.; and 2.3. Geohazards where water is the hosting and transmitting medium, including water  pollution, sea water intrusion etc.; and 3. Other geohazards (sand storm, sandflow, shallow gas accumulation etc.).From what will be presented below, one would see that Vetiver grass can be applied effectively for reducing many types of natural disasters mentioned above.
III. Traditional remedial measures and the need in new approaches
 The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and its provincial departments(DARD) are responsible for dyke management and “naturally” they undertake measures to protect river banks. Similarly, the Ministry of Transport (MOT) and its provincialdepartments (DOT) are in charge of road construction and road-related slope protection.Their concept is mostly to use structural, rigid protection measures e.g. concrete or rock riprap bank revetment, groins, retaining walls etc.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->