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The Bipolar Junction Transistor Discussion

The Bipolar Junction Transistor Discussion

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Published by Amalina Ismail

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Published by: Amalina Ismail on Jun 05, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/13/2010

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P
 
N
 
P
 
b
 
c
 
e
 
N
 
P
 
N
 
b
 
e
 
c
Ib
 
Ie
 
Ic
1.
The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is an extremely common electronic deviceto all forms of electronic circuits. It can be used for a number of usefulapplications such as an amplifier, a switch, a buffer, an oscillator, a nonlinear circuit – so forth.2.The BJT is made by P and N type semiconductor material, which should befamiliar from the study of diodes. The BJT is a three terminal device 
3.
There are two types of BJT transistors. They are the NPN type, and the PNPtype.(a) NPN(b) PNP
4.
The
EmitterBaseCollectorecbcbe
 
Ib
 
Ic
 
Ie
arrows show the direction of DC current flow for both the NPN and PNP cases. Inboth cases the base current (Ib) is a very small current in the order of microampswhile the collector current (Ic) and emitter current (Ie) are larger and in the order of milliamps. Note that for the NPN transistor, the base current flows into thetransistor but for the PNP transistor, the base current flows out the transistor.Also note Ic and Ie always flow in the same direction and in the direction of the(black) arrow, the same arrow that tells us whether the transistor is PNP or NPN.5.Now for thevoltages:The voltage atthe base isnormally writtenas Vb.The voltage atthe collector isnormally writtenas Vc.The voltage atthe emitter isnormally writtenVe.
Vc
 
Vec
 
Veb
 
Vbc
 
Vce
 
Vcb
 
Vbe
6.For the part voltage between collector and emitter, emitter and base and baseand collector we use either:Vce or Vce for collector and emitter Veb or Vbe for emitter and baseVbc or Vcb for base and collector It is written such like example below;Lets;Vc= 6V
(The voltage at the collector is 6 volts)
Ve= 2V
(The voltage at the emitter is 2 volts)
Then Vce is 4V because the voltage at the collector is 4V higher than the voltageat the emitter. Also, Vec = -4V because the voltage at the emitter (measuringpoint) is 4V lower than the voltage at the collector (reference point). And so on for Veb or Vbe and Vbc or Vcb. This is the convention used for measuring voltagesbetween terminals of the NPN and PNP transistors. The reason for this is that inthese examples the first subscript letter is usually of higher voltage than thesecond, hence all variables listed below will have positive values. 
VeVb

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