Science Behind the Filter
The biosand filter technology is a simple and effective technology that can be implemented with a small budget. Our group decided to pursue further research into this appropriate design solu-tion.
The Layers of the Filter
The first layer is biologically the most important. In only a couple of centimeters of wa-ter, a diverse feeding sequence will emerge known as the schmutzdeke or more simply, the bio-logical layer. The sand layer filters out 95 to 99% of organic contaminates including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, worms, and particles.
These organic contaminates stay in this water layerabove the sand layer. A natural food chain will emerge within this layer. As more wa-ter is strained through, the filter will be-come more effective in killing off harmfulcontaminates. This biological layer doesthe work in removing these contaminates while the sand and gravel layers will per-form more aesthetic work on the water.These two layers will deodorize, refresh,and clean the water making it more enjoy-able to drink.
EWB-UW • Rwanda Team •www.ewbuw.org
Figure 1 - To the right is the basic design our team used in the field to build a biosand filer.