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WWF Living Planet Report 2012

WWF Living Planet Report 2012

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Published by HayZara Madagascar
Within the vast immensity of the universe, a thin layer of life encircles a planet. Bound by rock below and space above, millions of diverse species thrive. Together, they form the ecosystems and habitats we so readily recognize as planet Earth – and which, in turn, supply a multitude of ecosystem services upon which people, and all life, depend.
Ever-growing human demand for resources, however, is putting tremendous pressures on biodiversity. This threatens the continued provision of ecosystem services, which not only further threatens biodiversity but also our own species’ future security, health and well-being.
This ninth edition of the Living Planet Report documents the changing state of biodiversity, ecosystems and humanity’s demand on natural resources; and explores the implications of these changes for biodiversity and human societies. The report highlights that current trends can still be reversed, through making better choices that place the natural world at the centre of economies, business models and lifestyles.
Chapter 1 presents the state of the planet as measured by three complementary indicators. Including data from many more species’ populations than previously, the Living Planet Index continues to show around a 30 per cent global decline in biodiversity health since 1970 (Figure 1).
Within the vast immensity of the universe, a thin layer of life encircles a planet. Bound by rock below and space above, millions of diverse species thrive. Together, they form the ecosystems and habitats we so readily recognize as planet Earth – and which, in turn, supply a multitude of ecosystem services upon which people, and all life, depend.
Ever-growing human demand for resources, however, is putting tremendous pressures on biodiversity. This threatens the continued provision of ecosystem services, which not only further threatens biodiversity but also our own species’ future security, health and well-being.
This ninth edition of the Living Planet Report documents the changing state of biodiversity, ecosystems and humanity’s demand on natural resources; and explores the implications of these changes for biodiversity and human societies. The report highlights that current trends can still be reversed, through making better choices that place the natural world at the centre of economies, business models and lifestyles.
Chapter 1 presents the state of the planet as measured by three complementary indicators. Including data from many more species’ populations than previously, the Living Planet Index continues to show around a 30 per cent global decline in biodiversity health since 1970 (Figure 1).

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Published by: HayZara Madagascar on Aug 20, 2013
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NI T
2012
REPORT
Living PlanetReport 2012
Biodiversity, biocapacityand better choices
 
 WWF
 WWF is one of the world’s largest and most experienced independentconservation organizations, with over 5 million supporters and a global network active in more than 100 countries. WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environmentand to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by conserving the world’s biological diversity, ensuring that the use of renewablenatural resources is sustainable, and promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.
Zoological Society of London
 
Founded in 1826, the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is an international
scientic, conservation and educational organization. Its mission is to achieve
and promote the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. ZSL
runs ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, carries out scientic research inthe Institute of Zoology and is actively involved in eld conservation worldwide.
Global Footprint Network 
 
The Global Footprint Network promotes the science of sustainability by advancing the Ecological Footprint, a resource accounting tool that makessustainability measurable. Together with its partners, the Network worksto further improve and implement this science by coordinating research,developing methodological standards, and providing decision-makers withrobust resource accounts to help the human economy operate within the Earth’secological limits.
European Space Agency 
The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is toshape the development of Europe’s space capability and ensure that investment
in space continues to deliver benets to the citizens of Europe and the world.
ESA is an international organization with 19 member states. By coordinating
the nancial and intellectual resources of its members, it can undertake
programmes and activities far beyond the scope of any single European country.
The Agency’s various programmes are designed to nd out more about Earth, its
immediate space environment, our solar system and the universe.
 WWF International
 Avenue du Mont-Blanc1196 Gland, Switzerland www.panda.org
Institute of Zoology 
Zoological Society of LondonRegent’s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK  www.zsl.org/indicators www.livingplanetindex.org
Global Footprint Network 
312 Clay Street, Suite 300Oakland, California 94607, USA  www.footprintnetwork.org
European Space Agency 
ESA HQ Mario-Nikis8-10 rue Mario Nikis75738 Paris Cedex 15FranceDesign by millerdesign.co.uk Cover photograph: KARI / ESA ISBN 978-2-940443-37-6
 
FOREWORD AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
European Space Agency: Observing Earth from space 4Earth needs more space by André Kuipers 5Keeping this a living planet by Jim Leape 67 billion expectations, one planet 8 At a glance 12
CHAPTER 1: THE STATE OF THE PLANET
14The Living Planet Index 16The Ecological Footprint 36Population, urbanization and development 52The Water Footprint 62
CHAPTER 2: WHY WE SHOULD CARE
68Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services and people 70Forests 74Rivers 82Oceans 84Scramble for land 88
CHAPTER 3: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
90Climate change impacts 92The use of scenarios 98Projecting the Ecological Footprint to 2050 100Modelling natural capital in Sumatra 101The Living Forests model 102
CHAPTER 4: BETTER CHOICES FOR A LIVING PLANET
104Closing words 124
ANNEX: TECHNICAL NOTES AND DATA TABLES
126 Annex 1: Living Planet Index 128 Annex 2: Ecological Footprint 135 Annex 3: Glossary and abbreviations 146
REFERENCES
153
CONTENTS

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