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ALEVEL GEOGRAPHY ESSAY Rural Inequality Botswana

ALEVEL GEOGRAPHY ESSAY Rural Inequality Botswana

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Published by Attiya
Botswana is a landlocked country in southern Africa with a population of 2,030,738 [1] and 70% of the land in Botswana is covered by the Kalahari desert. Tourism is growing in the country as it has extensive nature preserves and conservation practices. It has natural resources like diamond, copper, nickel and salt and has grown economically from one of the 10 poorest countries to a middle income country
Botswana is a landlocked country in southern Africa with a population of 2,030,738 [1] and 70% of the land in Botswana is covered by the Kalahari desert. Tourism is growing in the country as it has extensive nature preserves and conservation practices. It has natural resources like diamond, copper, nickel and salt and has grown economically from one of the 10 poorest countries to a middle income country

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Published by: Attiya on Aug 20, 2013
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02/23/2014

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Rural Inequality Botswana
Botswana is a landlocked country in southern Africa with a population of 
 
2,030,738 [1] and 70% of the land in Botswana is covered by the Kalahari desert. Tourism is growing in the country as it hasextensive nature preserves and conservation practices. It has natural resources likediamond,copper, nickel and salt and has grown economically from one of the 10 poorest countries to a middleincome country.Although Botswana has many natural resources, as it is alandlocked country, in the past trade was not possible as
transportation mainly included ships and as it didn’t have access
to the coast, these natural resources could not be sold so theGDP of the country remained low. It was not until recently thattransport was made available so trade could increase. There wouldhave been an increase in exports of diamond and other natural resourcesas well as imports from other countries. Botswana also faces manyenvironmental problems such as desertification and drought.Because of the drought 75% of human and animalpopulations are dependent on groundwater which isobtained by drilling deep boreholes which leads to
the erosion of land in the long term and also can’t be
built on. This could affect levels of development overtime as
secondary industry wouldn’t locate here as there isn’t much place to build factories, and the country
is sparsely populated. Although it has a considerably high adult literacy rate at 82.4% so it has ahighl
y skilled work force, there aren’t many people to work. Also as 95% of the country raises cattle
and livestock for means of income, this has increased levels of desertification as land is being usedintensely for growing crops and feeding livestock. As this has been profitable for farmers inBotswana, the land is continually being exploited which could in the long term prevent developmentbecause all the fertile soil is being used up and is prone to desertification. Many farmers may nothave any other land, which could lead to a decline in the primary industry and families therefore nothaving a source of income so then not contributing to the local economy by exporting crops aroundthe world.Even though Botswana has experienced high rates of economic growth over the years, 47% of thepopulation still lives below the UN poverty line ($2 per day) showing the wealth gained fromdiamond exports is not equally distributed. The number of people classified as urban has increasedfrom 4% in 1966 to 55% presently showing some form of inequality as just less than half thepopulation are still classified as rural however this could be by choice as some people may want toretain their rural lifestyles. There are also many income and gender inequalities in the country withfemale-headed households worse off. 23% of the population live on less that $1 a day, with a highconcentration of poverty in western areas and most women have low socio-economic status; mendecide about family size and the use of contraceptives. Even though urbanisation has been rapidthere are still many inequalities in the area which could lead to health & education deprivation assome people may not have access to such services which could cause a huge divide in the long term.

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