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Table Of Contents

Introduction: The Relationship of Theory to Practice
A. Three Approaches to Method
1. THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
2. APPLIED LINGUISTICS RESEARCH
3. IDEAS AND INTUITIONS FROM EXPERIENCE
B. Interactions Among Approaches to Practice
C. What the Three Approaches Have to Say About Method
Notes
Second Language Acquisition Theory
A. Five Hypotheses About Second Language Acquisition
1. THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING DISTINCTION
2. THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS
(a) Transitional forms
3. THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS
(a) Individual variation in Monitor use
4. THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS
(a) Statement of the hypothesis
(b) Evidence supporting the hypothesis
5. THE AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
B. The Causative Variable in Second Language Acquisition
1. THE CAUSATIVE VARIABLES
2. LANGUAGE TEACHING: DOES IT HELP?
(a) When language teaching helps
(b) When language teaching does not help
3. EXPOSURE VARIABLES
5. ACCULTURATION
Providing Input for Acquisition
A. The Potential of the Second Language Classroom
B. Limitations of the Classroom
C. The Role of Output
1. "CONVERSATION" AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
2. OUTPUT AND LEARNING
D. Characteristics of Optimal input for Acquisition
1. OPTIMAL INPUT IS COMPREHENSIBLE
(a) How to aid comprehension
2. OPTIMAL INPUT IS INTERESTING AND/OR RELEVANT
3. OPIMAL INPUT IS NOT GRAMMATICALLY SEQUENCED
(b) Quantity requirements for higher levels of proficiency
E. Other Features that Encourage Acquisition
1. THE STUDENT SHOULD NOT BE PUT ON THE DEFENSIVE
2. PROVIDE TOOLS TO HELP STUDENTS OBTAIN MORE INPUT
F. "Teaching" Conversational Competence
The Role of Grammar, or Putting Grammar in its Place
A. Learning Does Not Become Acquisition
B. The Place of Grammar
1. GRAMMAR FOR MONITOR USE: WHEN THE MONITOR IS USED
2. WHAT CAN BE MONITORED
(a) Incompetent Monitor use
(b) Rule learnability
(c) Some evidence
(d) Consequences of teaching "hard" rules
C. The Effects of Learning: Accuracy of Self-correction
1. FACTORS AFFECTING SELF-CORRECTION ACCURACY
D. Other Effects of Conscious Rules
E. Presentation of Rules
1. THE DEDUCTIVE-INDUCTIVE ISSUE
2. SEQUENCING AND LEARNING
F. Notes on Error Correction
B. Grammar as Subject Matter
A. Present-day Teaching Methods
1. GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION
(a) Requirements for optimal input
(c) Summary
2. AUDIO-LINGUALISM
3. COGNITIVE-CODE
4. THE DIRECT METHOD
(b) Learning
5. THE NATURAL APPROACH
6. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
7. SUGGESTOPEDIA
B. Applied Linguistics Research
1. REVIEW OF METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
(b) The GUME project
2. SOME PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS TO METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
3. MORE RECENT METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
(a) The TPR series
(b) Other input methods compared
(c) Suggestopedia research
3. THE ALTERNATIVES
(a) Conversation
(b) Pleasure reading
(c) Using subject matter for language teaching
(e) Other possibilities in subject matter teaching
D. Comments on Achievement Testing
1. NORMAL CONSIDERATIONS IN TEST EVALUATION AND SELECTION
2. INSTRUCTIONAL VALUE
3. LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS
4. UNIVERSITY LEVEL ESL
E. Some Gaps in Materials
1. THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY
2. A COMMENT ON FIELD TESTING OF MATERIALS
F. Some Problems
Bibliography
Index
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KRASHEN. Principles_and_Practice in Second Language Acquisition

KRASHEN. Principles_and_Practice in Second Language Acquisition

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Published by Luciana Viter

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Published by: Luciana Viter on Aug 20, 2013
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10/15/2013

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