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14856203 Eating Fish is Unnecessary

14856203 Eating Fish is Unnecessary

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Published by: RicardoSoulForce on Jun 07, 2009
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02/03/2013

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GovernmentFatally Flaw
Laura Scott Explains Why Veggies are Right to Let
E
at more fish, eat some fish, eat this fish, eat thatfish - for a food supposedly great for brains it suremakes your head hurt! According to governmentpolicy and almost every health magazine, vegetariansare doing themselves a disservice by not eating fish asits oils are an essential aid in avoiding heart attacksand death from coronary heart disease.A review of the scientific literature carried out by the VVF,however, blows a hole in this policy and begs the questionwhy it has been promoted with such energy. Like the redmeat industry, fishing attracts huge government subsidies.It raises the question as to whether the promotion of fishhas more to do with protecting an industry thanprotecting human health. The review found that:plant oil is far more effective in reducing thechance of death in high-risk patients than fish oil;plant oil reduces the risk of secondary heart attack by double compared to fish oil;fish oil does not reduce the chances of death fromheart disease in those at low risk, plant oil does;plant oils reduce the number of painful, non-fatalheart attacks;there are long-term survival benefits fromconsuming plant oils;most fish oils contain poisons from environmentalpollution, such as mercury, organophosphates,PCBs and dioxin which may encourage heartdisease, infertility and harm developing foetuses.
Fishy Fats
Eating fat is not the original sin; in fact, our bodiescan’t function properly without it. But it should be theright type, namely polyunsaturated fat foundprincipally in plant foods. It is also found in oily fishsuch as herring, mackerel, sardines and salmon.There are two main types of polyunsaturated fats -omega-6 (linoleic acid - LA) and omega-3 fats (linolenicacid - LNA). The richest dietary sources of omega-3 arenot fish but seed oils such as linseed, rapeseed, soya andmustard and whole nuts - particularly walnuts. (1).Green leafy vegetables are also a source of omega-3 (2).Together, omega-3 and omega-6 are referred to asessential fatty acids, or EFAs.Oily fish is promoted as a good source of EFAsbecause it contains omega-3 but so do flaxseed andrapeseed (canola). There is a difference in how thebody deals with plant oils compared to fish oils but aplanned vegetarian diet provides all the omega-3necessary and renders fish eating unnecessary.What has happened to the last 100 years? Lookingback at articles published near the start of the lastcentury, there was already a huge amount of evidenceto show that plant foods were preferable to meat.Since then, the health message has been constantlyobscured with a welter of red herrings. Fish eatingand fish oils to protect against heart disease (see thispage) are only the latest example of how health messages get hyped,exaggerated and inflated until they’re seen as a kind of panacea.It almost appears to be official policy to tinker around the edges of illhealth, giving advice that, at best, merely alleviates the worst effects of very bad diets. As our research shows on page nine, the evidence thatplant-based diets are the answer to our growing health problems increasesalmost daily. It is now apparent that a far more effective way of improvingpeople’s health and reducing their risk of heart disease would be to tacklebad eating habits head on rather than tinker with them at the edges.The bonus is, of course, that by tackling heart disease through diet, theepidemics of other degenerative diseases which are flourishing would alsobe effectively tackled. But unfortunately that isn’t the way it seems to work.Rather than encouraging people to change their diet as a whole, they areencouraged to see diseases individually - fish oils for healthy hearts,tomatoes for prostates, fibre for bowels, yoghurt for digestion, and so on.The extraordinarily unhealthy, celebrity-backed Atkins diet is anotherprime example of image over substance (see page 12). The media havefallen on it like a pack of ravening wolves despite the fact that it hasalready caused the death of one teenager and defies every tenet of sensible health advice. It would be funny if it wasn’t so serious - badeating habits create excess weight and obesity and the solution,supposedly, is to make your diet even worse!You would have expected the government’s Chief Medical Officer tohave made some kind of intervention, even if only to say ‘don’t touchthe Atkins diet with a barge pole’ but not a word. As a consequence, ithas been treated as though it is simply a lifestyle choice. But the waygovernments tackle ill health isn’t necessarily as straightforward as itcould, or perhaps should be ,as the article on page 15 makes clear.One result is that our National Health Service is, in fact, a sicknessservice with almost all the available money being spent on pills, potionsand procedures and about two per cent on prevention. The WorldHealth Organisation is clear that such is the scale of disease facingwestern countries that it can only be tackled through large scale dietaryintervention - and the diets they are referring to are plant based.
 Juliet GellatleyFounder & Director, Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation
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is the campaigning magazine of the Vegetarian & VeganFoundation, Top Suite, 8 York Court, Wilder Street, Bristol BS2 8QH.Tel: 0117 970 5190. Fax: 0117 924 4646.W: www.vegetarian.org.uk. E: info@vegetarian.org.uk.Director, Juliet Gellatley; Associate Director and Editor, Tony Wardle;Senior Nutritionist, Laura Scott; Senior Campaigner, Charlie Powell;Fundraising Manager; Graeme Wotherspoon; MerchandisingManager, Vanessa Buckler; Reception/Admin Assistants, Bev Hughesand Kat Himmel; Advertising and Promotions, Angie Greenaway;Editor’s Assistant, Michelle Preston; Company Secretary, John Carter.Design by Sussed Design. Registered Charity 1037486
Welcome
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Fish Policyed
the One that Got Away, Stay AwayFish and Heart Disease
Affairs of the heart are the primary reason why fish hascome to be viewed as a must-have accessory for ahealthy diet. Fatty acids found in fish flesh can helpreduce the likelihood of clots forming in the blood,can help lower blood pressure, cholesterol and fat(triglyceride) levels in the body and may help to reducethe risk of heart disease.Fish got the thumbs up when it was observed thatsome people who eat fish-rich diets, such as theJapanese and Inuit (Eskimos), had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Controlled trials showed thatmarine fatty acids could significantly reduce mortalityin people who already have cardiovascular disease. Soperhaps it’s not surprising that the American HeartAssociation (AHA) and the World Health Organisation(WHO) both argue that fish is an important part of thediet with the AHA recommending people to eat at leasttwo servings of fish per week - especially oily fish, aswell as plant foods rich in omega-3. Importantly, theAHA adds that this advice should be weighed againstconcerns over the contamination of fish from pollutionin the environment (3). Make no mistake, this is ahugely important proviso and seriously erodes the ideathat fish is healthy.Two important ‘secondary prevention’ trials (DART andGISSI) spurred the promotion of fish to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. Much less publicised was the LYONstudy that looked at the effects of plant-derived omega-3on hearts. Strange, considering it showed that plant-derived omega-3 reduces the risks of secondary heartdisease by almost double that of fish-based omega-3!The DART trial looked specifically at people who hadrecovered from a heart attack (myocardial infarction -MI) when blood supply to the heart muscle (themyocardium) is blocked, resulting in severe chest painor death. Males who had been advised to eat about300g of fatty fish per week showed a reduction of almost 30 per cent in mortality over two years.Researchers believe that fish oils help to normaliseheartbeat rhythms and prevent blood from becomingtoo sticky and ‘clumping’.The study showed that eating more fish resulted in asmall decrease in the amount of meat, meatproducts, cheese and eggs eaten. The outcome wasfewer fatal heart attacks but the total number of attacks was not significantly reduced (5). A follow-upstudy 10 years later found that there were no long-term survival benefits.The GISSI study also looked at patients who hadsurvived a heart attack but who had Mediterraneandietary habits. Patients were given omega-3 fish oilcapsules and there was a 10-15 per cent reduction inoverall mortality, non-fatal MI and stroke over a three-and-a-half year period (7).The LYON study also looked at how essential fattyacids can help prevent a second heart attack, thedifference being that plant-derived omega-3 wasused. Amazingly, it resulted in a 70 per centreduction in cardiac deaths as well as a reduction in‘significant coronary events’ - almost twice thereduction of the fish and fish oil trials! The heart-protection effects of their largely plant-based dietwere found to start quickly and four years later, mostpatients were still following it and their hearts werestill being protected (9).The significance of this study is hard to over-emphasise. It shows that plant-derived omega-3 isclearly superior to that derived from fish in reducingthe odds of dying from a heart attack and in avoidingthe painful experience of a second non-fatal attack;that plant-based diets can be successfully sustained;and that it provides long-term heart protection.A 1997 study by Singh and colleagues looked at theeffects of both fish oil and mustard oil on a group withsuspected MI. Belching and nausea were two sideeffects of the fish oil treatment that led to some subjectsleaving the trial. Very nice! Both groups showed asignificant reduction in total cardiac events (10).In 2002, Singh looked at healthy Indo-Mediterraneandiets rich in wholegrains, legumes, fruits andvegetables, coupled with foods high in omega-3 from
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nuts, mustard oil and soyabean oil. This diet was givento a group of patients already showing risk factors forheart disease such as angina and MI. The outcome wasa significant reduction in non-fatal MI and suddencardiac death. The authors concluded that omega-3fatty acids consumed as mustard or soyabean oils,walnuts, leafy green vegetables and wholegrains, ratherthan fish or fish oil supplements, might also reduce therisk of heart disease in people who already eat a fairlyhealthy diet (11).
Low-Risk - No Gain
Marckmann and Gronbaek in 1999 found that fishconsumption does not reduce the risk of death fromcoronary heart disease in low-risk people. Theyconcluded that people with healthy life-styles gain noadditional protection from eating fish. The authorsalso ask the question whether it is fish oil that seems togive protection to high-risk individuals or whetherother factors are involved (13).
Hearty Veggies
Low-risk people are those who have a low saturatedfatty acid diet as saturated fat is a known risk factor forcoronary heart disease. It follows that vegetarians andvegans usually come into this category. A recent reviewfound that vegetarians have a 25 per cent reduced risk of dying from heart disease than meat eaters (14) andthe latest position paper by The American DieteticAssociation puts them at lower risk of severaldegenerative diseases, including heart disease (16).
Marine Madness
Thanks to pollution, the marine environment isanything but fresh and clean. All the world’s oceanshave been polluted with toxic chemicals yet fish aremarketed as essential to a healthy diet. Environmentalcontaminants stemming from industrial processes reachall our water - streams, lakes, rivers as well as oceans.A particularly toxic group is termed POPs - persistentorganic pollutants. They are now part of many foodchains and become more concentrated the higher upthe chain you go. Carnivorous fish such as salmon eatsmaller fish and take on their toxic load, becomingever more toxic themselves. Humans in turn eat thesalmon, tuna or mackerel. Mercury is one such POPand recent studies show that fish are widelycontaminated with it.According to a government agency, most of the organicmercury that people eat comes from methylmercury infish. Mercury is a poison known to affect the kidneysand central nervous system (29). The heart doesn’t likemercury much either.Following a recent survey of mercury contamination infish, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued thefollowing extraordinary statement: ‘The FSA isadvising pregnant and breastfeeding women, andwomen who intend to become pregnant, to limit theirconsumption of tuna’. These women are also advisedto avoid eating shark, swordfish and marlin. Thereason is that mercury can harm the developingnervous system of an unborn child. Shamefully, almostall fish eaten contain trace amounts of methylmercuryand the three species listed are above ‘safety’ levels.A study looking at mercury levels in Mediterraneantuna found they exceeded maximum levels in over 60per cent of bluefin tuna (31) and other edible fish werealso contaminated. The authors expressed concernover human consumption of some species (32) andresearchers insist fish must continue to be monitoredclosely in order to assess the risks (33).
Mercury and Heart Disease
Mercury in fish could possibly limit any supposedheart protection benefits, according a 1995 study. Itshowed that a high intake of mercury from eating non-fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of MIand death. A daily intake of 30g or more increased therisk of MI two-fold and it went up by five per cent foreach additional 10g of fish eaten per day (34).The Food and Drink Administration (FDA) in Americahas already advised that high-risk groups such aspregnant women should not eat fish with high levels of mercury. The real question is - should anyone? (35).
Mercury and Infertility
Mercury is also implicated as a possible cause of infertility in both men and women and a recentstudy examining infertile people found that thoseeating the most seafood had elevated levels of mercury in the blood (36).Despite all these concerns, the FSA do from time totime change their recommendations on how much,who should and who shouldn’t eat what types of fish.To make this easy for you then here’s a couple of statements taken from the FSA website. FSA statementref. 2003/0330 states that two portions of fish shouldbe eaten weekly (30). The FSA leaflets entitled ‘Fishand shellfish’ and ‘Mercury in fish: your questionsanswered’ state that: at least two servings of fishshould be eaten per week. If you are a woman who isor who may become pregnant don’t eat predatory fishlike swordfish, shark, marlin or tuna. Just so you areclear then! Best advice - give up fish entirely.
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