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health and safety
health and safety

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Published by: Laisattrooklai Phisit on Aug 21, 2013
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Page 1 o 73
Health and Safety Exective
Reducing error and influencingbehaviour
This is a free-to-download, web-friendly version of HSG48(Second edition, pblished 1999). This version has been adapted for onlinese from HSE’s crrent printed version.
 You can buy the book at www.hsebooks.co.uk and most good bookshops.
ISBN 978 0 7176 2452 2Price £11.50
This publication is aimed at managers in all industries. It explains why humanfactors are important in health and safety and how they need to be assessedand managed in the same way as other risk factors. It gives practical advice onhow to develop systems designed to take account of human capabilities andfallibilities. 
HSE Books
Page 2 o 73
Health and Safety Exective
Crown copyright 2009
First published 1989Second edition 1999Reprinted 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007ISBN 978 0 7176 2452 2 All rights reserved. No part o this publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted in any orm or by any means (electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior writtenpermission o the copyright owner. Applications or reproduction should be made in writing to: The Oice o Public Sector Inormation, Inormation Policy Team,Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 4DU or e-mail: licensing@opsi.gov.uk  This guidance is issued by the Health and Saety Executive. Following the guidanceis not compulsory and you are ree to take other action. But i you do ollow theguidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health andsaety inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may reer to thisguidance as illustrating good practice.
Reducing error and infuencing behaviour Page 3 o 73
Health and Safety Exective
Introduction 4Chapter 1 What are ‘human factors’? 5
Why should I be interested in human factors issues at work? 6 How do I know if these problems exist in my organisation? 6Isn’t it just about people ‘taking more care’? 7 This seems to be a very broad topic area, where should I start? 7Isn’t this going to be costly? 7 Should I seek the views of the workforce and their representatives? 8What kind of control measures are possible? 8
Chapter 2 Understanding human failure 9
Human failure and accidents 9The human contribution to accidents 11Causes of human failure 12Breaking the rules 16
Chapter 3 Designing for people 19
Ergonomic design 19Designing jobs for mental well-being 21Writing procedures 24Designing warnings for maximum effect 27Human Reliability Assessment 28
Chapter 4 Managing the influences on human performance 31
Fatigue and shift work 31Effective shift communication 33Focusing on behaviour 34Health and safety culture 39
Chapter 5 Getting started 42
Where do I start? 42Human factors in risk assessments 42Human factors when analysing incidents, accidents and near misses 44Human factors in design and procurement 44Human factors in other aspects of health and safety management 45How can I do all of this? 45Checklist for human factors in the workplace 46
Chapter 6 Case studies: Solutions to human factors problems 47Acknowledgements 69Glossary 69References 70Further information 73

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